“Nelson Mandela” a preeminent name
By Aziz Ejaz
In world history, there have born some legendary personalities who had devoted their entire life’s luxuries moments for a specific purpose for the entire humanity who after their life occasionally remember them with fanaticism. Nelson Mandela, who was called by his clan Madiba, was one of the enlightened personalities whose gallantry achievements netted for him a name of world peace icon.
Nelson Mandela was born in a small village in Eastern Cape in South Africa in 1918, whose birth name was Rolihlahla Dalibhunga. The tumultuous life of Madiba’s family gave birth to a man who moved heaven and earth to eradicate the base cause of radicalism which was undoubtedly creating an environment of blemish and catastrophe for the black inhabitants of South Africa.
After the passage of time Madiba got enrollment in a school, there a teacher used to call him Nelson. Rolihlahla Dalibhunga father kicked the bucket owing to lung diseases when he was 9 years old. Nelson’s father was destined to be a chief of his clan, served as a counselor to tribal chief for several years. Nelson’s family was living in huts and occasionally ate a local harvest of maize, sorghum, pumpkin and beans, at the times when his father lost the title of chief over a dispute with local colonial magistrate, which compelled Mandela’s father to move in a small village.
Nelson Mandela was sprinkled in the Methodist church and he became the first in his family to attend school. His father’s death caused his to change dramatically. Mandela in his early age used to take classes in a one-room school next to the palace, there in his hometown studying English, Xhosa, history and geography. It was the time Mandela’s spirits showed a great interest in African history. Mandela’s courageous fanaticism towards its race and their rights to be highlighted internationally, eventually gotten fame and latter it allowed the black race managed to struggle against apartheid regime.
It appeared from the elders that how the African people used to live in relative peace until the coming of the white people. But after the entrance of white men in Africa they shattered the environment of peace. However black men shared their land, air and water with whites but white men took all of these for themselves.
In his early ages, he used to participate in the traditional and other curriculum that relate to the historical things and used to take part in ceremony that represented their custom and in this time their land was under the strong claws of white men colonial rule. Mandela wanted to develop a thought which to be providing authentic information that how his race has been deprived of the fundamentals rights.
Later on, he was enrolled at the university college of Fort Hare in 1939 and it was the only residential institute in south Africa for the white men, during his study times Mandela used to focus on the required courses and on Roman Dutch law to prepare for a career in civil service as an interpreter or clerk which was a best profession for black at that time to be obtained.
As he was working as a clerk in a church, he resigned from his passion at the time when a majority of students voted to boycott unless their demands were met. At was the 2nd year of Mandela at university Fort when he was elected as the student Representative of the council. Students dissatisfied with the supplement of food and power and latter this was the reason that emerged as boycott and resignation of Mandela because he was align with the student majority and the university’s Dr. Kerr who was one of the responsible persons of institute, expelled Mandela for the rest of years and gave him an ultimatum that he could return to school if he agreed to serve on the clauses. When he reached at home his elders seemed furious telling him go back to school and have to recant.
From here Mandela ran away from home. He settled in Johannesburg, where he worked a variety of jobs, including as a guard and a clerk, while completing his bachelor’s degree via correspondence course. He then enrolled at the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg to study law. After joining African National Congress in 1942, Mandela seemed actively involved in the anti-apartheid movement. Within the ANC, a small group of young Africans joined together and started calling themselves the African national congress youth league. Their goal was to transform awareness among the public who had no voice under the current regime. This was later accepted in 1949, and declared their goals and ways of protesting that contain civil disobedience, strike and non-cooperation, with policy goals of full citizenship, redistribution of land, trade union rights, and free compulsory education for all children, is legal and adoptable.
Anti-apartheid movement against South Africa whose racist based policies were furious compelled the black men to rise a voice. Mandela for about 20 years directed peaceful, nonviolent acts of defiance including the 1952 defiance campaign and the 1955 Congress of the people.
In 1956, Mandela and 150 others were arrested and charged with treason for their political advocacy and they eventually acquitted and from this ANC were being challenged by Africanists, a new breed of black activist who believed that the pacifist method (a method in which someone thinks wars are wrong and refuses to use violence) of the ANC was ineffective. Africanists soon broke away to form the Pan-Africanist Congress, which negatively affected the ANC.
In june1961, Mandela, who was formerly committed to nonviolent protest, began to argue for setting up an armed struggle which was than considered the only way to achieve change. In 1960 ANC was banned and he subsequently co-founded Umkhonto We Sizwe, also known as MK, an armed offshoot of the ANC dedicated to sabotage and Guerilla war tactics to end apartheid.
By the end of 1961, Mandela with his companions arrested after orchestrated a three-day national workers strike, and he was sentenced to five years in prison in 1963. Mandela was brought to stand trial with them for planning to overthrow the apartheid regime by violence. On June 12, 1964, he and 10 others ANC leaders were sentenced to life imprisonment for political offenses, including others unlawful activities across apartheid ruling country.
Nelson Mandela was incarcerated on Robben island prison for 18 of his 27 years in prison from 1964 to 1982, thereafter, he was at Pollsmoor prison during jail times, and he was facing tuberculosis and as a black political prisoner received the lowest level of treatment from prison workers. He grew his reputation steadily and eventually became a potent symbol of resistance against the regime, was fuelling the distinguishing factors of discrimination and radicalism across the country.
In 1993 Mandela along with de Klerk were Jointly awarded the Noble prize for their pivotal work toward dismantling apartheid, de klerk was the president of ACN at that time. Mandela after 27 years in prison, became the first black man president of South Africa in May 10, 1994, at the age of 77. He ruled from 1994 until June 1999 and he used to work to bring about the transition from minority rule and apartheid to black majority rule. Mandela’s enthusiasm in bringing race equality, diminishing of discrimination and radicalism is the most influential one which won a great emblem of peace in the world.
In addition to advocating for peace and equality, he remained committed to fight against AIDS that killed his son, Makgatho in 2005. In his later years, Mandela was suffering from a lung infection which let him be hospitalized in Johannesburg from 2011 to 2012. Later on, Mandela was hospitalized many times by the same infection till the end of his life and on December, 5, 2013 at the age of 95, the great icon of Peace Nelson Mandela died at his home in Johannesburg, South Africa.
Mandela was married three times; firstly with Evelyn Ntoke Mase (1944-1957), having four Children, Winnie Madikizela in 1958, having two daughters, after splitting in 1996, and two years later Mandela married Graca Machel, with whom he remained until his death.