“A Glance at the Emergence of society”
By Nadil Baloch, Buleda
Undoubtedly, everything in this world had past the evolutionary stage and finally reached on climax stage. Likewise, societies have past so many years for reaching the peak of civilization. Firstly, I would like to clear society. Society means a group of people who share common culture, specific geographic location and a specific language. Today there is a verity of groups, societies, nations, states etc but before they were same while in the first evolutionary stage. Due to many reasons, they were categorized in distinct divisions.
The evolutionary stages of societies are given below.
Hunting and gather societies -12000 years ago:
Hunting and gather was the initiative stage of societies. In this stage, societies were very savagery, nomadic; no preservation of food, no surplus of food, without any religion and intercourse was very common. The sources of food were two “vegetable and hunting the animal”.
Female with aged man collected vegetable, young male hunted the animals, and at nights, all sat to gather and ate them. They have assigned the female to collect vegetables because sex was very common due to which female got pregnant very soon and they were unable to follow the animals to hunt them.
Pastoral and horticulture societies -10000 years ago:
It is the second stage of society evolution and in this stage; people tried to preserve foods, started cultivating through hand tools, and for cultivation lands were needed and they started occupying the lands and the concept of occupation of lands emerged. They started petting the animals instead of hunting them. Some people were more intelligent and they occupied more and more lands for their future use. They cultivated and preserved more and more foods. On the other hand, some people did not occupy any land and they went for borrowing foods from landlords. After getting foods from property owners, they could not give the debts back then borrowers were became the slaves of proprietors and the concept of slavery emerged. Tribe, chief system and the concept of religion emerged.
Agricultural societies -5000 years ago:
It is one of the stages of societies where the sources of income were agriculture sectors. They fulfilled their demand through cultivating a large part of the lands and they preserved more and more surplus foods. The concept of money such as gold coin, seashells, and silver, preservation of foods and the village emerged in this duration. The rate of slavery increased and people lived in one place for a long time.
Industrial societies -18th century:
When industrial revolution came in England in 18th century, the social stratification of people emerged. People were divided in lower, middle and upper classes, people migrated from the rural to urbanization for finding jobs and facilities. In addition, a large number of industries was opened and capitalists started hard working and engaged more and more people as labours in their factories. Various kind of technology developed such as esteem engine, wheel chair etc. The capitalists produced more and more profits from the factories. Social inequality emerged in a large skill.
Postindustrial societies –present:
Finally, Postindustrial societies are the most modern form of society. Due to microchip societies changed from industrial societies into postindustrial societies. People have introduced wireless networks, internet, SMS etc. Moreover, every society is fighting for power and they are trying to develop the most modern technology and most civilized nation.