The cohesive bases of the Baloch Nationalism
The subject has been taken from book of Taj Mohammad Breseeg “Baloch Nationalism, its origin and development”.
The last rebellious chief, who took up arms against the Tehran power, was Mirza Khan of Jask, but at last he was forced for his safety to flee toward the Arab Sheikdoms. “Henceforth”, wrote the Baloch nationalist write, Muhammad Sardar Khan Baloch, “the entire Persian Balochistan remained like a body without head. Descending unto most mean ruptures of beastly whims, Reza Shah, destroyed one by one, the rank and fashion of the millions of Persian Balochistan, by mean, most deplorable. Family were deported, thousands were deprived of their property; the elders as it will be distinguished families exposed to most inhuman tortures were flayed, blinded maimed and”. However, as it will be discussed in chapter five, the Baloch nationalist struggle in Iran, encourage by the upsurge of the Baloch nationalist in Pakistan, was resumed in the early 1960s.
The main causes of the failure of the various Baloch resistance movements, according to historian InayaUllah Baloch were the disunity of the tribal chiefs, lack of a social base for Baloch nationalist in Iran, a powerful Iranian military force, and the joint Perso-British interest in pacifying the Baloch tribes. In spite of the large popular support enjoyed by Mir Mahammad Khan in his confrontation with the Iranian forces, his feudally structured government was highly fissiparous and vulnerable. The defection by some Sardars who viewed the increasing concentration of powers in the hands of the Baranzai ruler as a threat to their traditional hereditary privilege very soon proved it. As a result, Jahanbani reports that several Sardars in Dezzak district defected to him during the course of the military operation.
Apart from the inadequate arming of the Baloch forces, the Persian air attacks made the launching of general offensives by Baranzais difficult. It should be noted that the air power was an effective means which Reza Shah consolidate his powers, especially against the Baloch just as British air power instrumental in consolidating British’s imperial power in post-World War I Middle East Moreover, the lack of active material support from other Baloch regions, the lack of a social base for the Baloch nationalism in Iran played also an important role to the defeat of Mir Dost Mohammad Khan.
After Hossein Khan and Bahram Khan, Dost Mohmmad Khan’s rebellion was the third Baloch-wide attempt within three decades (1898-1928) to establish the Baloch rule in Western Balochistan. Dost Mohmmad Khan called for a baloch nation to be united under his leadership and he based his legitimacy on his control of Bazanzai tribe. As a tribal leader, Dost Mohmmad Khan called for a Baloch nation to be united under his leadership and he based his legitimacy on his control of Baranzai tribe. As a tribal, Dost Mahmmad Khan controlled the allegiances of the tribal membbers who would fight for his cause. How, due to the British intrigues and counter activates, Mir Dost Mohmmad Khan’s attempts to include the Saraddi tribes context into his domain was unsuccessful.
Dost Mohmmad Khan’s rebellion was tribal. Although a few members of the ruling class may have been exposed in modern nationalistic ideas though their contact with the British and Baloch of Eastern Balochistan the society was highly underdeveloped sociology and economically. There were no notable middle class or other modern classes, which are identified as the base for modern nationalism. However, a delegation of Iranian Baloch attended “the Balochistan and all India Baloch Conference” in December 1932, at Jacobabad. It is said, influenced by this delegation, that Magasi himself took a secret tour to Sarhaddi Iranian Balochistan. Was he able to meet the Saraddi rebellious chief? Nothing is known about this, 1934, however, according to InayatUllah Baloch, Magsai suggested an armed similarly, in 1933, Mir Abdul Aziz Kurd, a prominent national leader of Balochistan, showed this opposition to the partition and division of Balochistan by publishing the first map of Greater Balochistan.
The Balochistan struggle for the freedom, during the whole British period. Like in the two other parts of the Baloch country (British and Iranian Balochistan) continued in Sistan (Afghanisatan) as well, impressed by king AmanUllah’s anti-British campaign, the Baloch of Nimruz showed their protest against the demarcation and occupation of their land by intensive raiding inside British Balochistan in the early 1920s. By attacking Kurdi, a British garrison, Ghazi Sher Jan Sanjarani arrested a British officer and his escorts and took them to the court to AmanUllah Khan in Kabul. Ghazi Sher Jan is a legendary hero among the Baloch of Afghanistan and songs about him are sung even today.