Author Archives: bolanvoice
By Nadil Shah, Buleda
Once upon a time, I was small behind the herd of goats and sheep, played the role of shepherd. Getting up early was my duty and coming back late at home at the fall of dusk was my habit. Neither knew about the world nor about my surroundings that what was happening. I never knew what ‘money, toys’ was and neither had knowledge about playing games nor thought about education. Just my purpose and responsibility was to know about herd because these were very important to me at that time. I never knew how to talk, behave and set with the people and share my thoughts due to which I usually sat far from the crowd of the people. With the passage of time, I even was not able to understand the language of the people who talked about politics, social and economic issues and progress.
On other hand, they discussed the current situations but I was never involved in such debates because I thought that these were not my cup of tea. Due to not understanding the people, I sat far from the people and slept among the goats, sheep and started talking with goats, sheep and took care of them. So that, other wild animals may not come and attack them. As a social animal, everyone is a productive member of a society but I was not because the thing which shapes the personality of a person is ‘socialization’ and I was socialized by the herd and also adapted the behaviors of them.
I was not in touch with the people and current situations, neither I was interested in such discussions, nor had awareness about my rights or I was told about them. Neither I had any role in socio-economic and political development nor do I participate in such headaches because I was adjusted with goats.
But at last, a drought came and green mountains became black color-like, greenery vanished from the face of earth, the goats and sheep started dying one by one, lastly, I became alone and isolated, because folks got finished and people were very far from me due to not understanding their language and their culture. On the other hand, most of the people were riding motorcycles and cars. Also some of them were traveling in the sky by airplanes but I was afraid of standing asides of the roads. Then I realized that I was excessively backward from the other people and had great awareness about my importance for my society but people went very ahead from me. Then, I started going toward the destination but it is not clear when and how I would reach.
By Shahdad Mumtaz
On the eve of Eid-ul-Azha, when all over the world Muslims were fervently celebrating this ritual cheerfully, and animals were being slaughtered to revere the Sunnah of Prophet Ibrahim; so the sequent days of this holy day a dirtiest incident occurred in Turbat Kech. A was slaughtered like an animal and her guilt was that she wanted to marry her lover. It is a maiden incident but a very shocking one in this region. The grim act of murder was committed with the consent of the victim’s family members.
Through neighboring sources, it was known that the siblings of the girl often tortured her intentionally to force her to give consented for the relation with boy that they both were named for each other early. Even then, she was beaten and severely tortured but despite this the girl refused the offer, eventually her choice to marry her lover led to a brutal murder of the couple.
In much depression, the girl had decided on the 8th of October in evening hours to run-away with her lover. The girl with impetus to marry the boy, decided to escape from home. A profound analysis of a love story implies that if the family members of the girl had let them have a valid relation, this tragedy would not have occurred.
In the morning of 9th October, the family members of the girl, similar to a movie scene, convinced and called the lover couple for honor killing. The girl wasn’t ready to come, and she said before coming, “I know the wrath of my family; if I go, they will forcefully marry me the boy I don’t like.” Eventually, she was promised over a telephone that the family will make the wedlock with her lover. The girl came gladly to the venue and she asked to call her lover, because they will be knotted as life partners by Nikah (wedlock).
Alas! Paradoxically, the lovers were clocked into a room by the mastermind of the story who is the brother-in-law of the girl beheaded the boy with a knife in presence of the girl. The helpless girl made hue and cry and fought with killers but having been heavily pushed she lost consciousness. The stone hearted man then also slaughtered the girl in an unconscious state at 1:30 am.
Police arrived at the scene at 2:40am and arrested every member of the family, and later presented the two brothers and the father of the girl before the court. But the main culprit, the brother-in-law of the slain girl, successfully managed to flee. He was the one who had come up with the idea of calling them and getting them together with the intention to kill them. The culprit has not been arrested and yet the police have failed to trace his whereabouts. The case is still in pending at the Central Jail of Turbat.
Such an inhumane act has boggled every individual’s mind in the area, but astonishingly horrifying incident only get tiny coverage in local newspapers as well as the main stream media and reasons are not ascertained about this negligence of journalists. The local journalists advised me that “Do not report such incidents, it will result in defamation of the Baloch society and the world will have perceived a different image regarding the Baloch Nation.” It is awful that journalists are obliged to depict the reality and truth, but the local media is deeply engaged in gains from advertisements and mainly give coverage to issues desired by the government only.
The narrated incident is a stain of shame and morality for humanity besides the Islamic laws and Baloch culture, as well. In Baloch customs, we exaggeratedly say that women have a great and high respect in society, but this story barely repudiates all claims where a girl could not get married lawfully by all means; religion and traditions.
In Stone Age such incidents were common, but it is now the 21st century and human civilization is on a higher level and even now women are denied their natural rights. The rest of the world is striving for impunity, freedom, gender equality but in our society ignorant sections exist that do agree to give basic right to their daughters, and the Turbat’s incident being a solid proof of this.
‘’Under the sky one thing has been constantly bringing changes and that infinite force certainly is Education. However, it is the fundamental right of every citizen regardless of their cast, creed or dialect’’
By Mutalib Latif
There is no concealing the fact that Education is the basic need of human beings, but mainly, it proves to work as an asset to the transformation of the framework of our society. It should be in our minds education is not a game we should play with it. It is a source of goodness, bringing brightness in our lives. Through education we will be able enough to know our fundamental rights and humanity. No one can deny the fact that education makes a man broadminded and a true human being. Some people are quit their education after marriage keeping mind the time-giving devotion to their marriage life.
Few days ago, I visited a professor in Government Ata-Shad Degree College in Turbat, district of Balochistan. I remember the venerated teacher, Mr. Rauf, holding the honor of Phd, who teaches balochi subject in that institution.
A quiet learned man said, ‘’Education should be our life’s goal. Perhaps and die for its attainment’’. Further he said in an inquiring manner, ‘’I saw some people who formed bondage of marriage, a destination of their lives. I do not understand their reasoning why after marriage they abandon their education. But what I think is, the education is my spirit is therefore highly cherished by me. Adding ‘’I believe that education is the only important thing in the world.
Something that will never deceive us, full of happiness is called education. It just needs hard work. If we work hard, as it result it will be fruitful. All human beings need education because without education we are incomplete. We should gather world’s knowledge in our minds. If we think like a professor, our souls will reach the heavens. We need to work hard in order to taste the fruits of our education.
Often, we see many students after their classes. They don’t touch their course books. It’s a bad habit. We need to give time to our course books after classes. Perhaps have a small nap after schools or colleges. After nap we should do our homework and whatever we read in classes. We should revise it in our rooms. For those enrolled at a college or any institution. Yes, reading course books often seems boring but we need to read it, even though we get good health behind bad taste tablets.
Above all, adopting reading culture is fruitful for students. Rare students adopt this discipline. Despite the fact that libraries are available in very city of any country, students should willingly go there and read general books. In addition to that, adopting the cultures that will build our minds for good. Seldom getting stuck while we are giving a speech, or we are being asked questions.
Finally, this world gives value and respect to those who are readers and will-read and learned graduates. I need my brother and sisters to become graduates. Our country’s name should touch the sky. Keep working hard and give time to your education. Encourage our culture by reading. Give love to everyone then you can yourself are cultivating an educated person.
With reference to Balochistan we interviewed Malik Siraj Akber. Malik is a US-based journalist as well as the editor-in-chief of the Baloch Hal, the first online English language newspaper of Balochistan province and a contributing writer for the Huffington Post. In 2010-11, Akbar was a Hubert Humphrey Fellow at Arizona State University while in 2012, the National Endowment for Democracy (N.E.D), a Washington DC-based organization, awarded him a Reagan-Fascell Democracy Fellowship where he researched the political assassinations, enforced disappearances and attacks on journalists in Balochistan. His writings mainly focus on the Baloch nationalist movement, human rights, press freedom, sectarian killings in Pakistan, the war on terror and U.S.-Pakistan relations. Much to his credentials, He has interviewed leading Pakistani government officials serving in Balochistan and the leaders of the Baloch nationalist movement. In addition to that, he has authored a book, ‘’The Redefined Dimensions of the Baloch Nationalist Movement’’ which was released in 2011.
Interviewed by Jameel Jansheer
(Blv stands for Bolan Voice and MSA for Malik Siraj Akbar)
Blv: You got political asylum in U.S on the base that journalists aren’t protected in Balochistan, after attainment of asylum how you are raising voice for Balochistan’s journalists?
MSA: I have been trying to create awareness among the rest of the Pakistanis and also the international community about the conflict in Balochistan, particularly the plight of journalists, through my articles, interviews, public talks and panel discussions. I have highlighted the central challenges of the news media in Balochistan on prestigious platforms like CNN, Al-Jazeera, BBC, Voice of America, Washington Post and several American universities and think-tanks. I am a member of the Press Freedom Committee of the National Press Club in Washington DC which provided me an opportunity to closely interact with organizations like Reporters Without Borders, Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) and Freedom House to educate them about what is happening in Balochistan with regards to issues of press freedom. You can see that organizations like CPJ and Amnesty International have significantly increased their reporting on Balochistan because we immediately reach out to them to bring into their attention certain incidents that happen in Balochistan. My 2012 research at the National Endowment for Democracy (NED), Washington D.C, where I was a Regan-Fascel Democracy Fellow, focused on threats to journalists in Balochistan. I have given public presentations about the risks of reporting at the annual conference of the South Asian Journalists Association (SAJA) and events organized by reputed institutions like Harvard University, the Center for Media Assistance, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, the American University, and George Mason University etc.
Blv: It has been guessed that you don’t voice-up for Baloch journalists who are victim of establishment’s atrocities (Daily Tawar workers and Baloch areas Journalists), but write for Syed Fahsih Iaqbal who wasn’t son of Baloch land but was a pro-establishment journalist in journalism profession Balochistan chapter?
MSA: In my personal and professional life, I never distinguish between people based on their race and religion. For me, everyone is important regardless of his or her religious, racial and ethnic background. I am disappointed over your question as you classify journalists in ‘Baloch journalist’ and ‘non-Baloch journalist’ categories. Only people who do not read my work can only accuse me of not writing about Baloch journalists. Unfortunately, there are numerous Baloch journalists, such as Mohammad Khan Sasoli, Rematullah Shaheen, Siddiq Edhio, Ilyas Nazar Javid Naseer Rind or even most recently Irshad Mastho, about whose challenges I wrote during their lifetime. At that time, nobody even knew them nor did anyone, either from the government or journalists’ organizations, paid attention to their plight. There is an unfortunate trend of recognizing and celebrating people when they are dead. Nobody talks about them when they are alive and facing serious death threats. For example, in 2009, I wrote about terrorism charges against journalist Rehmatullah Shaeen for the first time in an editorial “Baloch journalist under terrorism charges”. But at that time, nobody paid attention to what he was going through and what he could consequently face. He was eventually killed and dumped in 2012. Similarly, on July 10, 2012, we published a news report about threats to senior journalist Irshad Masthoi but, again, nothing was done until he was killed last month. When journalist Javid Naseer Rind was kidnapped, I wrote an editorial on September 13, 2012. I wrote: “Mr. Rind’s family and well-wishers have every legitimate reason to worry about his forced disappearance because, unfortunately, most of the Baloch journalists who had been kidnapped in the past in a similar pattern were eventually found dead.” Unfortunately, Mr. Rind met the same deadly fate. As far as Syed Fahsih Iaqbal is concerned, I must say several people whom you describe as “not the son of Baloch land” have indeed offered extraordinary services to Balochistan. There is nothing wrong with recognizing and appreciating these people and their services. Through my writings, I would like to tell my readers that you must not judge people’s services based on their ethnicity and religion. I can’t ever imagine myself reaching that level of chauvinism. I was probably the only Baloch journalist who publicly condemned one Baloch armed group’s warnings to BBC reporter Ayub Tareen, who had to flee Quetta owing to death threats. In July 2013, I published an article called “Ten Pakistani friends of Balochistan.” There are several people who are not the ‘son of the Baloch land”, such as the novelist Mohammad Hanif, Tarek Fatah, I.A. Rehman, Hamid Mir (with whom I disagree on numerous matters), Wusatullah Khan, Dr. Akbar Ahmed, Asma Jhangir, Ali Dayan Hassan. However, these people have spoken for the Baloch people on very important platform during very critical times. Their services are commendable and I think we should broaden our circle of such friends instead of insisting that we should appreciate only those who are the ‘sons of the soil’.
Blv: In an interview you spoke Baloch separatist movement commenced after 2006, but before this 5 movements for secession had been fought and present one is follow-up of those, hence how ignoring past movement and turning face from reality?
MSA: I am not sure which interview you are referring to but in that interview I must have been referring specifically to the ongoing Baloch movement. Of course, everyone knows that there had been uprisings in Balochistan in 1948, 1958, 1962 and 1973. The current Baloch movement began in 2004 and intensified in 2006 after the killing of Akbar Bugti. The movement between 2004 and 2006 was not about an independent Balochistan. It gained momentum in resistance to General Musharraf’s so-called mega projects, including the construction of the Gwadar Port. When the interim Prime Minister Chaudhary Shujaat Hussain formed two parliamentary committees to address the conflict in Balochistan, all Baloch leaders, including the Marri, Mengal and Bugti agreed to meet with senators Wasim Sajad and Mushahid Hussain, who headed these parliamentary committees. While negotiating with those committees, no one including Nawab Bugti, asked for a free Balochistan. Nonetheless, the resistance in 1973 was in reaction to the ouster of the National Awami Party (NAP) government. Had Zulifiqar Ali Bhutto not dismissed the Balochistan government, the NAP leadership would be contented to live with Pakistan. The current movement is a continuation of the Baloch sense of alienation but absolute independence had never been such a prominent part of the past movements. This movement is also the longest among all past resistance battles.
Blv: In above discussed interview you made demand for a ‘Secular Balochistan’, you should elaborate to whom you were addressing? Was that Pakistan, so it is not secular itself and its nature base on religious fundamentalism, consequently how it will bestow you secular environment or Balochistan adorned on a plate?
MSA: With that I meant whether Balochistan remains a part of Pakistan or becomes a free state, I, as an ordinary citizen, wish to see it become a society where religion strictly remains a personal matter of the citizens. The State should not patronize any religion. People should be treated as equal citizens regardless their religion. Secularism is not something that you can only introduce with a constitutional amendment. Secularism is actually a form of social behavior that societies like Pakistan and Balochistan urgently need. The reason I specifically mention Balochistan is because of the increasing attacks on Shias and the recent attacks on the Zikiris in Awaran. As I said earlier, there is several non-Baloch who have offered great services to Balochistan, there are also numerous non-Muslims or non-Sunnis who have made invaluable contributions to our society. We can appreciate their services only by not looking at them from the prism of Muslim versus non-Muslim.
Blv: Do you believe Baloch renaissances without its national-state, because the 67 years history of Pakistan implies purely decay of Baloch identification including cultural and pillage of its resources?
MSA: Well, when you talk of a renaissance then you of course do not want the State to lead it. Renaissance or reformative movements are generally started and led by the local people. There are things that the Baloch cannot achieve because, as you said, the Pakistani state does not want that to happen. But there are also many things for which the Baloch can take ownership without necessarily depending on the government. I think Attaullah Mengal’s decision in 1970s to force Punjabi teachers to leave Balochistan was a historic blunder. I was not even born then but I saw a similar trend in 2010 when Baloch armed groups killed dozens of schoolteachers on issues such as singing Pakistan’s national anthem or hoisting flags in the schools. Human Rights Watch rightly reported about our children saying that “their future is at stake.” Several non-Baloch PhD professors had to leave the province. We should ask ourselves: Is that how we should treat the people who come to teach our children? I would clearly say no. When Dr. Malik Baloch became the chief minister of Balochistan, I wrote an editorial called “Mr. Chief Minister, Bring Back Balochistan’s Teachers.” You can be in support of or against a free Balochistan but that does not justify killing teachers. For a renaissance, it is important that Balochistan’s intellectuals, teachers, not politicians, should decide how our politics and future should look like. When you bring all these important institutions under political influence then you basically take away the society’s ability to question certain political policies and practices. These are some of the biggest challenges we face right now. It is more important whether my child learns how to do his math and science than whether there is a Pakistani flag on the top of his school. That’s insignificant. That should not be the issue at this point as, ironically; all leaders of the Baloch movement also went to the same Pakistani educational institutions. Somebody should ask if these schools could not Pakistanize Balach Marri or Dr. Allah Nazar, how they are going to brainwash our today’s children. Nobody asks these questions for the same reason as I stated that our civil society and educational institutions are not absolutely free. They are expected to take sides either with the government or the nationalists for their survival.
Blv: Through your journalistic works you could bring Baloch Youth on an ideological path but your online-newspaper covers merely aristocrats?
MSA: [Laughs] Aristocrats? Who, besides the people of Balochistan, is not an aristocrat? It is unfortunate but aristocrats have always led the government and the opposition in Balochistan. Besides Dr. Allah Nazar, show me a single Baloch opposition leader who does not come from the aristocracy? Excluding Dr. Malik Baloch, tell me a single Balochistan chief minister who was not an aristocrat? Who are the movers and the shakers of Balochistan? Jams, Jamlis, Magsis, Zehris, Marris, Mengals, Bugtis, Raisanis etc. They are all the same, whether they are in the government or in the opposition. They will never allow an “outsider” come in their ranks and climb the ladder of leadership. Why is it that Jam Ghulam Qadir’s son Jam Yousaf or Ghause Baksh Raisani’s son Aslam Raisani or Saleh Bhothani’s brother Aslam Bhoothani only had to replace them on top government positions? If you look at the opposition, can you imagine that a non-Mengal or Bugti could lead the Balochistan National Party or the Jamori Watan Party? No. So, that’s where our job begins as journalists and writers. Our goal is to encourage free thought in the Baloch society and encourage debate. Through the Baloch Hal, we have prepared, or at least helped, a new generation of young Baloch writers and thinkers. We cover the aristocrats because we don’t live in the fools’ paradise. That’s the reality that these are actually the people in the government and they are the ones who make decisions. Our job as journalists is not to throw people out of power. Our work is to report what the people in the power or the opposition do right or wrong. This is a very slow process but that’s the way forward. I have no qualms in claiming that the Baloch Hal has done Balochistan such a great service that even several government-funded institutions or opposition parties could do that.
Blv: You are well aware that present rulers were disregarded by Baloch masses in passed state’s election and by boycotting people supported to secessionists but you never mentioned this fact to world by your journalistic obligations, what are reasons?
MSA: I was the only Baloch editor who publicly called on the Balochistan National Party and the National Party to boycott the general elections of 2013. On March 13, I wrote an editorial called “Why the Baloch Interests Rest with Boycotting the Elections.” My argument was, “By opting for elections, the Baloch nationalist parties have significantly disappointed the Baloch masses… but participation in the election before punishing those ‘democratic’ leaders who committed human rights abuses in Balochistan…will encourage and cement a culture of impunity and unconditional remission.” Soon after the elections, I described the voter response the “lowest turnout probably ever witnessed in the history of the province.” However, I must say that the participation of the Baloch and Pashtun nationalists, who had boycotted the 2008 elections, gave the 2013 elections more legitimacy. People who are supportive of the free Balochistan movement did not vote but moderate nationalists such as the National Party performed better than what we had expected.
Blv: China by help of establishment looting Baloch resources, and being a Baloch journalist on which level you are hindering this wrong-doings?
MSA: You have to understand that a journalist’s job is not to “hinder” something. Our responsibility is to give alternative policy recommendations. The political leaders, in return, make policy decisions. Chief Minister Dr. Malik Baloch willingly accompanied Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif to sign an agreement on Gwadar Port. Now, it is strange that when Baloch nationalists are in power, they actively support controversial government decisions that do not serve the interests of the Baloch people. However, these nationalists complain against Islamabad only when they are ousted from power. Didn’t Sarar Akhtar Mengal, as the Balochistan Chief Minister in 1998, make a similar blunder by driving the car of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif in Balochistan when the latter had detonated nuclear tests in Chagai? On Gwadar, I opposed Dr. Malik’s decision and I called the agreement with China a “midday robbery”. In my editorial, I suggested that the “Baloch should do whatever it takes to resist the Chinese presence in Balochistan because most of Pakistan’s foreign friends such as China, Iran and Saudi Arabia are not friends of the Baloch. Pakistan uses Balochistan as a ground for all types of experiments ranging from nuclear tests to constructing naval bases for foreign countries.”
Blv: How you are working for Baloch journalists internationally, who are facing various difficulties; lacking of training institutes, financial scarcity, and adverse-environment are most prominent?
MSA: While journalists back home in Balochistan face direct threats to their lives, those among us who live in exile face equally severe financial hardships. Being a journalist in Balochistan does not necessarily make you a journalist in the United States and get a job with a media organization. I would be very honest that I have personally faced the hardest times of my life in the last four years since I got political asylum here in the United States. Finding steady income is the number one challenge here. It is simply not easy to be by yourself in a country with 300 million people (America) without having any connections in places where you wish to find employment. In addition, there are only a few organizations that assist journalists but the situation in countries like Syria and Iraq is so adverse that these organizations hardly have the resources to help every journalist in need. I, as an individual, cannot do much to change the working and living conditions of journalists besides only writing about these issues. Local press clubs and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) should step forward and initiate projects that address issues of journalists’ safety and training.
Expressed views are interviewer own and do not reflect with magazine policy.
The subject has been taken from book of Taj Mohammad Breseeg “Baloch Nationalism, its origin and development”.
The Khanate of Balochistan:
Continued from previous……..
In 1816, describing Nasir Khan’s personality, the British traveller, Hery Pottinger who visited the country soon after the death of Nasir Khan, wrote, “If we contemplate the character of Nusseer [Nasir] Khan, whether as a soldier, a statesman, or prince, and call to mind the people among whom he was placed, we shall find in him a most extraordinary combination of all the virtues attached to those sations and duties. Possibly the most interesting aspect of the long reign of Nasir Khan was his skillful internal policy, directed towards strengthening the powrs and figure of the “Khan”, though without destroying traditional political mechanisms of a society that was still eminently tribal and pastoral in nature. The Khanate under Nasir Khan, as observed by Janmahmad, was an improved version of the Rind-Lashari tribal union. It did not bring any changes to the general tribal set-up. The tribal alliance was broad-based with tremendous power allowed to the tribal chiefs, who recognized the Khanate as the paramount power and contributed nominal revenue to him as well as a fixed contingent of men in time of war. The tribal area of responsibility was fixed and allowed to continue. A council of advisors representing the major tribes and allied people assisted the Khan, with a Wazir (Prime Ministr) usually selected from the Tajik or Hindu immigrants of Kalat. Like the Afghan King, Ahmad Shah Abdali, in important affairs, Nasir consulted the Ulama.
The most important innovation of Nasir Khan I was a tribal army, traditionally known as the Lashkar. Having spent some time in the courts of the Afghan and Persian, he had watched techniques of warfare, and realized the necessity of maintaining a well-organized army in his Khanate. Accordingly, he chose and stationed a permanent army unit, called Dasta-e-Khas (Special Division) in his capital numbering 1200 men. In emergencies Dasta-e-Khas increased to 10860 men. Furthermore, he had created two additional Divisions, which used to be called the “Sarawan Lashkar” (Sarawan Division) and the “Jhalawan Lashakar” (Jhalawan Division). Nasir Khan was the Supreme Commander of this whole body of the State army.
Nasir Khan’s most notable achievement was the creation of a unified Baloch army of some 25,000 men and 1,000 camels, an impressive force by eighteenth-century southwest Asian standards. For the first time in their history, most of the major Balochi tribes were rallied under the banner of an agreed system of military organization and recruitment.
The main revenue was from land produce and collections from the port of Karachi and goods passing through the Bolan Pass. Taxation was unequal and depended on many factors including the distance of the area from the capital. Taxation on sea-borne trade from Makkoran coast was also nominal. Generally, the Sarawan and Jhalawan tribes who provided the bulk of the Khan’s troops and other important factions in the area were exempted from land revenue. In Makkoran one-tenth of the land produce was the state share while the Jatt of Kacch-Gandhawa paid one half and the indigenous and Dehwar cultivators of Kalat, Mastung and Shal (Quetta) paid one-third to the Khan.
Nasir Khan-I was the greatest and most powerful Khan among all the rulers of the Khanate. As a result of his successful reformist policies, he is sometime compared to “Peter the Greate” of Russia, in the Baloch nationalist circles. Nasir Khan-I sought to build a kingdom in which all tribes, including those in Kacchi, would be voluntarily united. In doing so, he was largely successful. The constituency of tribal chiefs, who willingly subordinated themselves, moderated his rule. The Khan stood at the head of a large tribal confederacy and went methodically about building the Khanate. So, the Khanate was loose confederacy. Nasir Khan-I augmented the union by an enlightened policy. He succeeded in evolving the most effective and strong union of tribes in the history of the region. In a grand gesture of political farsightedness, he never interfered with internal tribal issues. The Rind and Magasis of Kacch-Gandhava and a few others in Sistan had complete independence, without paying any land revenue. Their political allegiance was considered sufficient.
The reunification of the vast Baloch territory into a single political entity encouraged trade. Possession of the ports of Makkoran made the Khanate an important trading center between the Iranian plateau, Central Asia, India, the Indian Ocean and the region that gave on to it, also attracting numerous communities of Hindu and Ismaili merchants, with beneficial results for the Khanate’s fiscal revenue. Moreover Nasir Khan encouraged trade by reducing taxes and induced Hindu traders, bookkeepers and moneylenders to return by paying for the upkeep of the Hindu temple at Kalat. These measures strengthened the Khanate and the Khan. “Furthermore”, M. H. Hossenbor argues, “Nasir Khan strengthened the economic infrastructure of the state by constructing an extensive network of roads, caravanserais, and forts, expanding the irrigation system, and improving the state treasury by reorganizing the collection system for taxes and other revenues”. Accordingly, the 44 years’ rule of Nasir Khan-I, known to the Baloch as the “great”, and the hero of Baloch history, was the years of strenuous administration and organization interspersed with military expeditions.
While having a loose feudal relationship with the Afghan king, Ahmad Shah, Nasir Khan-I never regarded himself a tributary to the Durranis but rather a junior participator in the division of the Persian Empire after the death of Nadir Shah Afshar in 1747. However, the Afghan attitude towards the Khan provoked Mir Nasir Khan to declare the complete independence of Kalat in 1758. As a result, the Afghan forces under the command of Ahmad Shah himself invaded Balochistan and bsieged the Kalat fortress for forty days. Ultimately they came to an amicable agreement and the Afghan troops were withdrawn. The agreement known as the “Treaty of Kalat” (1758), recognized the sovereign status of Balochistan. The Afghan monarch promised not to interfere in the internal and external affairs of the Baloch confederacy. The Khan in turn promised to help Afghanistan in the case of external aggression against it or in its foreign expeditions. Both the countries agreed not to give asylum to rebels within their states. The agreement provided the basis for the Khanate’s subsequent relations with Afghanistan.
To be continued…..
When the brave leader crossed the great divide;
The nature revealed to his ideological followers the wish,
wish of Comrade’s desired burial incumbent to abide
The brave Baloch women; You markedly deterred the conspired plans;
plans of thy nation’s foe from being fruitful and successful
And bravo for standing firm upon your stance;
Lets’s say, Long live my nation..!!!
The courage & determination with national sentiments
bravery in hearts shown by Baloch irrespective of gender
women and men; including the civilians and political activist;
from the students to socialists; When became hands in hands,
The Baloch Banuks playing their vital role came to the fore,
the antagonist seems afraid seeing the women so active socially and politically for the national cause; cause of liberty
Let’s say, Long live my nation..!!!
Going ahead with raising slogans; slogans of revolution;
though slow in evolution; but aiming at fulfillment of the desired burial;
Burial of Comrade Khair Buksh Marri, in Shoday-e-Kabirstan
This was the substantive will;
will of their nationalist leader
Regardless the odds,
through their relentless struggle, foe’s conspiracies were shattered
into pieces as pro-state elements wanted to bury him in Kahan district Kohlu as anonymously and
sorry! Baloch Women turned their Comrade’s wish into a reality
by becoming a resistant one people for the desired burial and at least now laid to rest in
cemetery of Baloch martyrs.
Bravo & Let’s say, long live my nation..!!
By Ahmed Khan
The reveal of religions inserted rifts between humans and they have divided in fractions which consolidated capitalist’s capital and for contentment of others irrational and narcissist sentiments are being presented that we are beloved to divine and superior. Superstition and dreams are being used for as logic to keep people as mindless. The Palestine is also a linked dispute of same religion base business of tycoons, or theologists.
The Judaists believe the Jerusalem is their the holiest place on this planet and they are supreme creature of God; the universe and its particles including non-Jew human beings have been sent in world for their service and convenience the only by birth a person is Jew and otherwise no one can be converted in to Judaism.
Among monotheists, the Judaism is most ancient, where successors are Christianity and Muslimism. The Muslimism has great imitation to precedent Judaism religion. Judaism In accordance with the discussed religions the sacred places are also situated on same place mean in Jerusalem. The religiously inflated people are not agreeing to budge from their stance consequently; the wars have got bastion on the Palestine’s land.
The border of Jerusalem is particularly delicate issue, with each side asserting claims over this city. The three largest Abrahamic religions-Judaism as an important setting for their religious and historical narratives. Jerusalem is the holiest site in world for Judaism. The two divine Temples were built on what is called the Temple Mount, the first over three thousand years ago. Archaeological evidence has proven that the Divine Temple of the Jews was built at that time, and the second built a few centuries after its destruction. Jerusalem was the capital city of the Israeli Empire, established right before the construction of the first temple.
For Muslim Jerusalem is the third holiest after Mecca and Medina. Where the Messenger Muhammad tied his horse, Al-Aqsa Mosque was built in the area of Temple Mount several centuries ago. Israel controls Jerusalem, however, Muslim is almost exclusively allowed on the Temple Mount Al-Aqsa Mosque site. Jews are rarely allowed on to Temple Mount. Though the East-Jerusalem is controlled by Israel after Six-Day war against Jordan. The west part of Jerusalem was controlled the state Israel founded in 1948. No country of world has recognized Jerusalem the capital city but only Israel its self-consider it capital. The United Nation asked its member states and organizations that they mustn’t accept ownership of Israel in East-Jerusalem and not to recognize it the Israelian capital. The International court of Justice also declares East-Jerusalem an occupied territory in 2006, and forbidden Israel to construct wall and divided the city.
As of 2005, there more than 719,000 people living in Jerusalem 465,000 were Jews (Costly living in west Jerusalem) and 232,000 were Muslim (Mostly living in East Jerusalem).
The Imperialist stands on capitalism, uses the states to exploit the regions people wholly. With same purpose the British after Second World War for their base-pad formed a state ‘Israel’ and afterward it has been backed and got like strategic point hegemony on Arab region. The Arab people’s lands were given to Jews and they are pushed to lead life like refugee on their land.
Similarly, the Arab despotic rulers also are using slogan of Muslimism to get Palestinians fight against the Israelis. Simultaneously, they have relations, even they are puppet in the hands imperialist which is the foster of Israel. All Arab leaders with their wealth is having connection with European countries, particularly in America and Britain they possess properties and philandering points. Israel is favorite child of America and that is massacring of Palestinian commoners, women and children. The workers of the region are like sandwich between right wing fundamentalists.
The religion is main tool that is being used by imperialist after Second World War and formation of United Nation is also meaningless due to its un-authorization. Israel is Zionist state and parallel Saudi Arab is Islamic state, the both are preserving contradicted faith believers but astonishingly master of those is one the America.
In Palestine, the group Hamas and Fatah are prominent but defy to each other. Fatah’s founder Yasir Arafat that wanted settlement with Israel including withdrew of Jewish forces from Palestinian areas. He also was desirous about dismantle of Jewish settlers who have been settled by Israel on Palestinian land. This group wants two states settlement of long-winded dispute. Another group Hamas is politically and financially backed by Iran and radically doesn’t want existence of Israel at all on earth. Like Iran this party also wants to wipe-out Israel from map of this globe which is not possible and against the humanism too.
The Hamas has support in Gaza strip a town bordering with Israel. This group’s militants got long-range-rockets and other sophisticated weapons from Iran and open markets as well.
They in various channels including dug tunnels use for shifting weapons to Gaza city and from there fire rockets on bordering towns inside the Israel which often cause decimation, even Israel have missile defense system “Iron mould”. This type of hostilities provides Israel logic to invade Gaza indiscriminately innocent citizens including women and children the military. The Israel claims for targeting the depots of weapon of Hams and its militants but impartial laborers and citizens are being victimized by Israeli missiles and bombardment of jets; such acts are base violation of human rights. The decimate in Gaza refutes the Israeli claims that she only onslaughts on militants and their hideout, but avoids from collateral damage.
After the massacre of Palestinians the right-wing leaders of both sides proclaim for their triumphant. The Hamas successes in getting funds from Iran and other Arab states including United Nation for rehabilitation works in the aid shape which goes in Pockets of religious tycoons who are leading luxurious lives and they have stabilized war business onward. This has become a source of earning by blood of Palestinian citizens.
The Israeli leaders also get pomp that they delivered a lesson to those who are against yours entity in this world. Bravo! With jets, missiles and artillery killing thousands children and innocent is valiant?
It is apparent that Israel and America have influence on Arab state elites particularly in ruling class. The Arab rulers grant oil production to Israel and US and against this support monarch and despotic rulers in Arab states. In Egypt, Mr SISI came in power with dealing Israel and America, otherwise he doesn’t have Egyptian masses support. He toppled the government Mr Mursi, who elected by people.
Saudi Monarchs also are ruling with help of Imperialist without following democratic principles in 21st century, but they Pawn the wealth Saudi with America. The US also has ownership on Saudian oil; hence she gives share to its favored child Israel. Similarly, Jordan is helpless in front of US and Israel. However, these countries never stand for help of Palestinians’ and Arab states’ enslaved leaders are energizing Israel to persecute the innocent people.
The Israeli progressive masses and Palestinian innocent people must ask the war mongers that what is advantageous for humans of both sides of dividing line called border. This fight is apartheid, and nothing else. From rise of religion to date, these notions only benefited some actors but have been causing death and are savageness for human.
It is fact that this globe inmate has not grown on level of humanism; hence in Palestine two state ideas must be applied for Jews and Muslims and live peacefully as neighbors because the Temple Mount and Al-Aqsa Mosque can’t be shifted to far proximity. The only solution is tolerance and co-existence. Nothing can be wiped-out from surface of earth. The burying of people and mass killing in Gaza must be stopped, because this never will benefit to any belligerent but from this only the mills of weapons will run and usurper will deep neoliberalism by using human blood as fuel in Gaza other parts of world.
Baloch student organization (Azad) in its released statement has expressed that Khair Bukhsh Marri’s outstanding role has got place perpetually in minds of Baloch and his name is inscribed brightly on the page of history. The severance of Baba Marri orphaned Balochistan. He was not only an iron hearted leader of Baloch but also was a lenient pedagogue too. His thoughts and philosophy will lead the Baloch in darkness’s and quandaries.
BSO-a characterizing Khair Bukhsh Marri’s in statement said that his honor was higher than Himalaya and he was profound deeper than oceans. The words cannot be devoted to express about his magical characteristics and personality. The BSO is heir of Baba’s philosophy. BSO-A has decided to confer the title to great leader of Baloch Nation Khair Bukhsh Marri since his role is historic stretching on decades, his knowledge its dimensions cannot be limited into merely a personality. He was like an institute but wasn’t a person or human solely. He taught each Baloch the lesson of freedom for national prosperity and elucidated Baloch’s brains with ideology.
Comrade Khair Bukhsh Marri’s philosophy of parity and Justice wasn’t only for Baloch but it was for entire humanity. He ever resisted the slavery of human by human, and entire life was engaged to sensualize people about human freedom.
Baba Marri was progenitor of Baloch ideology including a comprehensive institute. He had earned the title of ‘Baba’ among Baloch and it had got attributed with the name of Khair Bukhsh Marri.
Through the statement, Baloch student organization (Azad) has titled Late Khair Bukhsh Marri the ‘Institute of freedom’. Further it is mentioned that organization would attribute its organizational series of education with departed leader Khair Bukhsh Marri. Organization announced to Kick-off work on a book regarding Khair Bukhsh Marr’s life, Bio-data and his philosophy.
In statement it is informed that comrade KB’s initiated mission is uncompleted but organization determines to take this noble mission to the destination. Baba Marri would believe in human, social and national equivalence and BSO-A has program of human parity, justice and nations’ freedom, and organization is edifying to Baloch on every forum. We are obliged to transfer the Khair Bukhsh Marri thoughts to each Baloch and upcoming generations as well.
By Yousaf Ajab Baloch
The growing extremism and alarming steps being taken by radicalised outfits are a great menace to all people in Balochistan where, once again, Baloch women are confronting acid attacks. The recent three attacks on 12 women within 10 days in Pishin, Quetta and Mastung have proved that extremists in Balochistan not only target kill the Hazaras and Zikri Baloch and forcibly shut down schools, they also burn women with acid to impose their brand of fundamentalism on Baloch society. People in Balochistan were terrified when, on July 21, four women were sprayed with acid in the outskirts of Quetta, followed by a similar attack on two girls in Mastung on July 22. The third brutal attack took place on July 29 in the Tang area of Pishin district when four assailants entered a house and sprayed six women with corrosive acid. The assailants managed to flee the crime scene and, till now, no one has been arrested. The government of Balochistan has taken the easy route: pinning the blame for these attacks on crimes of revenge and passion.
In all these incidents, the perpetrators drove motorcycles and used syringes to throw the acid. Fortunately, these 12 victims have not received serious burns but no doubt they have been hurt psychologically and it is now near impossible for them to lead normal lives in the future. Prior to the Quetta, Mastung and Pishin attacks, on April 13, 2010, two sisters were attacked in Dalbandin city of Balochistan where a religious, underground organisation claimed responsibility. Three young sisters were attacked on April 29, 2010, in Kalat city, some 150 km from the capital of Balochistan. Before the Kalat acid attack, a religious group had already warned women to wear head coverings while the responsible organisation had threatened students in private schools, English language centres and vocational institutions to give up studying and not to come out of their homes without being accompanied by a male family member.
The enforced shutdown of schools in Panjgur and Makran areas and incidents of acid attacks can never be separated because these acts are moves to radicalise Baloch society. There is intimidation by Tanzeem-ul-Islam al Furqan, a religious militant organisation that has closed down all private schools and English language centres in Panjgur district. The said organisation also attacked and burnt one of the school’s vans carrying female students and teachers on May 14 in Panjgur. These acid attacks on women in Balochistan are quite surprising because such acts differ from the history, traditions and rituals of Baloch society where women are greatly respected and such violence hardly ever happens. Gender equality and respect for women have been part of Baloch history and culture. We can find no real record of assaults on women in Baloch and Pashtun society because of tribal or family feuds.
Baloch nationalists and intellectuals allege that the patronisation of extremists is meant to weaken Baloch nationalism and the rights movement where, along with the male Baloch, the women are now also playing a leading role. Acid attacks and threats to girls to abandon education are aimed at keeping Baloch women away from the Baloch movement.
The roots of growing extremism are linked to the Afghan jihad that left a number of effects on Balochistan, due to which the province is still suffering. First of all, millions of Afghan refugees rushed to Balochistan. These Afghan ‘brothers and sisters’ from across the border introduced Balochistan to the terrible Kalashnikov and drug culture. Secondly, when the Afghan war ended, the number of fighters who were trained and sent from Balochistan and other parts of Pakistan returned with religious and sectarian passion, and they were accommodated in madrassas (seminaries) where their activism was slowly strengthened against the Shia Hazaras in Balochistan. Now the same elements are allegedly being utilised against Baloch society.
Having observed the ground realities, no doubt the allegations made by Baloch nationalist are enough to make one believe that allowing extremism to grow is one of Islamabad’s policies to appease Islamist extremists while suppressing the genuine demands of the Baloch people. This bloody approach will wreak devastation in already conflict-hit Balochistan. Using religious fundamentalists as proxies in Balochistan will create a new set of problems because acid attacks on women, closure of girls’ schools and the massacre of Zikris in Makran cannot destroy incipient nationalism. Therefore, Islamabad needs to review its policy regarding Balochistan.
Baloch pro-freedom leader Hyrbyair Marri strongly condemned Iran for conspiring to change Balochistan’s name. He said: “Iran has illegally and at gunpoint occupied Balochistan and it has continued the exploitation of Balochistan since occupation. Iran executed and mercilessly killed thousands of Baloch because it is scared of growing awareness of a Baloch people about their national freedom.”
He said that Iran always wanted to keep Baloch people away from their national liberation, culture, traditions and identity that’s why it has made the lethal drugs common in Balochistan so that Baloch youth get into drugs and be disconnected from Baloch struggle. He said Iran also had put a ban on development of Balochi language and Baloch people in [Iranian occupied Balochistan] are not even permitted to give their children Balochi names.
Iran has illegally merged several Baloch areas with Persian land in Kerman and Bandar Abbas, in the same manner as Pakistan amalgamated Dera Ghazi Khan, Jacobabad and other area of occupied Balochistan with Sindh and Punjab. He said that Iran and Pakistan are systematically dividing Baloch land in different administrative areas to eliminate Balochi language and Baloch struggle for their national identity but Iranian and Pakistani such conspiracies have failed to counter Baloch national struggle.
Hyrbyair Marri said Iran under a new evil design has started to change Balochistan’s name by removing word ‘Balochistan’ from official and public documents. “It is an effort to push Baloch people toward eternal slavery but the Baloch people will not allow the occupiers to change their motherland’s name. Hence the Baloch in Iranian occupied Balochistan should stand against this evil conspiracy of Iran because this shows that they want to destroy our language, culture and national identity. The Baloch nation will not tolerate such plans of Iran,” He said.
Expressing his views on Islamic countries hue and cry over Israel’s attack on Palestine Hyrbyair Marri said that it shows the double standard of Islamic countries because they are protesting and expressing their anger over Israel’s actions in Palestine but Iran and Pakistan have been committing human rights violations in Balochistan from past many decades but the so called Islamic nations have remained mum and criminally silent on Baloch genocide.
Hyrbyair Marri said that Pakistan and Iran have killed thousands of Baloch and several thousand are still being illegally detained by them. Pakistan’s military operations continue unabated in several areas of Balochistan including Dera Bugti, Kahan [Kohistan Marri] and Mashky where innocent people including women and children are brutally murdered but neither the Islamic countries have protested against it or their media give any coverage to Baloch massacre by Iran and Pakistan.
He said Islamic nations’ silence on Baloch genocide and their continuous support for Pakistan and Iran show their prejudice toward Balochistan. It also shows that these countries are not on the side of oppressed Muslims but they favour the oppressive and occupying powers.
Mr Marri said that Baloch nation should become more organised and use all their energy and capability for the achievement of their national liberation.
(Courtesy to Balochwana)
By Bruce Riedel
The United States is supporting the Afghan government with troops and other military assistance in the fight against Islamist radicals based in Pakistan. As the United States ponders its policy options, it would do well to heed lessons from a time when the situation was reversed. In one of America’s biggest Cold War successes, the Carter and Reagan administrations supported the anti-Soviet mujahedin in Afghanistan and helped them defeat the Soviet Union. Bruce Riedel, author of the newly released What We Won: America’s Secret War in Afghanistan, identifies lessons from the anti-Soviet struggle and contends that the United States risks repeating some of Moscow’s many mistakes.
Twenty five years ago, after 3,331 days of war, the Soviet 40th Red Army retreated in defeat from Afghanistan. An American-led coalition had orchestrated support for the Afghan mujahedin that shattered the myth of Red Army invincibility. The CIA had won the last and decisive battle of the Cold War. The Berlin Wall fell within months of the Soviets’ defeat in Afghanistan and the Warsaw Pact disintegrated. The danger of nuclear war between the two super powers, which had terrorized the world for generations, vanished overnight.
This secret war a quarter century ago holds many lessons for Americans considering how to react to crises in 2014. At a cost of roughly $3 billion and without a single American casualty, the secret American war in Afghanistan may have been the most successful covert action in our nation’s history. It was a bipartisan victory. President Jimmy Carter created the coalition of Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, China, Britain and others that secretly backed the mujahedin in just a few weeks after the Russian invasion in early 1980. President Ronald Reagan continued the covert campaign and then escalated it in 1986 to victory. The Congress was not only kept fully informed on the war, it was an enthusiastic supporter.
Covert actions can produce significant policy successes if they are well planned, have achievable goals, are supported by robust coalitions, and exploit enemy weaknesses. But they inevitably have unforeseen consequences which must be understood in real time, not after the fact.
Days after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan on Christmas Eve 1979, Carter told the CIA to turn Afghanistan into Russia’s Vietnam, a quagmire that would bog Moscow down in an endless insurgency. The goal was simple and clear cut. The Afghans were eager to fight the Russians; all they needed was weapons. In 1986, at the prompting of Pakistan’s dictator, Zia-ul-Haq, Reagan gave the mujahedin Stinger surface-to-air missiles. In less than six months, both the Russians and Iranians had captured Stingers, but Reagan did not stop supplying them. He was not paralyzed by fear of weapons falling into the wrong hands; it was a price worth paying for victory.
Zbigniew Brzezinski, Carter’s national security advisor, traveled in early 1980 to Asia to assemble the alliance that defeated Russia. Bill Casey, Reagan’s CIA director, guided it to victory. Zia was the keystone of the alliance. Carter and Reagan both put aside their concerns about Pakistan’s nuclear program to focus on the more immediate goal.
From Margaret Thatcher to King Fahd, the Soviet Union had lots of enemies eager to help defeat the 40th Army. The Russians made many grievous errors that the allies exploited; the most important one was that Moscow never resourced the war sufficiently. It sent fewer troops to control Afghanistan than it had sent to conquer Hungary in 1956 or Czechoslovakia in 1968. Russian commanders never had enough manpower to police the border with Pakistan where the mujahedin had their base camps.
The American secret war in Afghanistan has important lessons for how America leaves the current war in Afghanistan. Washington has been even slower than Moscow to send the resources necessary to fight the Taliban, especially in the early years of the war when Iraq took the higher priority. Also like Moscow, Washington has had no success in curbing Pakistani support for the insurgents. Rarely in one generation does a country fight the same war twice from opposite sides of the border, but we have now done that in Afghanistan. And we have learned that it was much easier to prevail in Afghanistan in 1989 when we were on the same side as the mujahidin being supported by Pakistan instead of fighting against the groups being supported by Pakistan (which today provides sanctuary to the Haqqani network and Mullah Omar’s Quetta shura, the twin bases of the Afghan Taliban).
The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan sparked a firestorm in the Muslim world—as many as 20,000 volunteers from Morocco to Indonesia flocked to Pakistan to join the mujahedin. Osama bin Laden was one of them. American intelligence was largely oblivious to the role of these fighters in the conflict and the consequences that began to flow from it. No one paid much attention to the so-called Arab Afghans until years after the war when they had gone home to spread extremism in Algeria, Egypt, and elsewhere. So as the Cold War was ending, the global jihad was starting.
Washington abandoned Afghanistan in 1990, leaving behind a shattered country and a radicalized Pakistan. Other pressing issues like German reunification and Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait consumed Washington. Little effort was made to try to manage the civil war that continued in Afghanistan for another decade or to help Pakistan restore stable civilian rule after Zia died. Al Qaeda and 9/11 emerged from this neglect.
Today, Iraq is a fresh reminder that wars don’t end when America leaves them. President Obama won’t end the Afghan War in 2016, and he may leave a dangerous combustible mix behind if he leaves as precipitously as America left Afghanistan and Pakistan in 1990. He should rethink announcement that all American forces will leave by December 2016 and let conditions on the ground determine what U.S. military and intelligence capabilities will remain in 2017 and beyond. His successor should not be boxed in by a decision made in mid-2014 about what Afghanistan needs in 2017. To do so would ignore one of the most important lessons of the secret war.
The danger in Afghanistan and Pakistan tomorrow is the same as the danger in Iraq today. Without a unilateral counterterrorism capability in Afghanistan, al Qaeda may regenerate in South Asia as quickly as it has regenerated in Iraq. In fact, al Qaeda is likely to regenerate faster in Pakistan given the allies it has there once drone operations from bases in Afghanistan cease. No U.S. military force in Afghanistan means no unilateral counterterrorism capability. The President should keep his (and his successor’s) options open for the future in Afghanistan, not close them prematurely or precipitously.
Bruce Riedel is the author of What We Won: America’s Secret War in Afghanistan, 1979-1989, published by Brookings in July. After thirty years of service in the CIA, he joined Brookings where he is director of the Intelligence Project.
(Courtesy to Foreign Policy, New York)
Actually, Women are the right shoulders of men without them neither a positive progress is possible nor can our condition seems to be faring better given their absence or their contribution in our lives to any cause be it national, social, or educational. On the other hand, staggering is to acknowledge that we have denied this fact and we are using women for household and daily domestic chores and childrearing purposes, which is completely contrary to the laws of mutual life.
By Nadil Baloch, Kech
A Balochi saying It takes two to make a quarrel”, similarly, if we have a deep glance at this saying we can find a great meaningful and effective message in it. Women are the right shoulders of men without them neither a positive progress is possible nor can our condition seem better. But we have denied this fact and we are using women for household works and childrearing purposes.
Undoubtedly, everyone wants his or her dominancy on other people of low status quo. Likely, men usually want their dominancy on their daughters, sisters and women. On one hand, men mostly highlight that God has written in the luck of women to set in home and take care of children due to which women never raise their voice for their rights. Dr Mobarak writes in his book of ‘Tarik-aur-Aurat’ that “when a girl meets her boyfriend people do not only blame the girl but also she is finished but boy is neither blamed nor finished according to any law. In fact, both are involved in the crime but girl is killed in our society and boy freely enjoys his life with his family.”
If we have a glace over the history, we can find that firstly women became the victims of slavery in this world and as it exist today. Women were bought and sold in the hands of different kings and royal families. Due to these practices they were compelled to accept their position and lastly satisfied with their condition. And how a woman was considered a woman? If we think deeply about this question, we will come up with an authentic answer. When a child comes in this world he or she will be socialized and treated as a girl or boy. Both are same physically and psychologically just matter is socialization.
Moreover, a child comes in this world if that is a girl then she will be socialized like a girl and she would be given toys, dolls, and mother makes her sit at home. When she grows up then mother gives her cloths and she would be told to do embroideries, washing plats, washing the cloths of other family members and then she feels given to doing the household work for the rest of her life, whether be it her mother’s home or her husband’s home when she gets married to someone in life. The same thing, If that is a boy then he is given basically some toys of sports like football, bates, balls, fake cars, cycles and he usually plays with his peer groups outside of his home. Father mostly takes him to bazar and he would be given boy’s cloths which are socially constructed by the society especially for the men.
Furthermore, after this process both are sent to different schools, a boy is sent to a boy’s school and girl is sent to a girl’s school. In this situation difference between men and women is created.
Additionally, Khalil Gibran said a story in his novel “spirits of rebellious’ that a 15 years old girl was married to a 40-year-old man, soon they got divorce and the girl became disappointed and she passed worried and sorrowful life till death. And it is greatly being practiced in our society. In reality, neither woman is physically nor mentally less than man, just it is socially constructed by our society.
Thus, in such tumultuous framework of society, only keeping in mind the women as a part of society for the domestic chores, constantly the disproportionate view of no emancipation of women and the mindset created by the society, is resultantly, factoring in the repercussion as the women are made compelled to live in home and do their household work and take care of their children and on the other hand, the always-wanting desire of dominancy of men on the women puts a heap of limitless restrictions and bars to the beautiful lives of women, to the success of our country, and to any possible streak of progression of our nation to take place, therefore, it must be our basic thing to think better in terms of women’s lives and their future careers, their education, domestic and environmental emancipation in the interest of the swift trigger of formulation of a better educated and successful society as soon as possible for a better life of ours and that of our women too.
By Izhar ul Haq
It’s an agonizing end to a promising start of what could have become a new era in Media. The thought that social media has proved itself to be an end to all the ways that Mass Media has been used to set the agenda – as Dr. Max McCombs and Dr. Donald Shaw theorized – of its audience’s discussion to mentally order and organize their world, engineering public opinion with their selective perception based upon sensationalism and propaganda for their corporate interests has proved itself nothing but an illusion. The same web, made with corporate fiber and coated this time with the color of free speech has been stitched to seize every individual at a leisurely pace.
Examining the definition of Social Media stipulated by Oxford dictionary appears as: “websites and applications that enable users to create and share content or to participate in social networking.” Do we really see such creation regarding news and current affairs promoting a social way of disseminating news through this phenomenal mechanism? The social media is a world of mass media where a few large media brands still control most of the media output and thus the conversation is always made around the topics that they choose. Andreas Kaplan and Michael Haenlein clarified social media as “a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content.” But what we see here are very few people writing blogs or producing any type of media these days, people seem to prefer clicking a “like” button, or re-tweeting someone else’s content which manifests that it most definitely is not social media but it can rather be properly called as ‘Social Distribution of (Mass) Media’.
Permit me to explain.
Looking back at the history of Phrase Right to know, Social media proves itself the product of that continues struggle made to demolish that vacuum erected against the free speech, by Authoritarian states – the Greek-Roman societies – and on to the 16th century, continues struggle to liberate the flow of information, continues struggle to let us know the actual dissemination of information up till realizing Social responsibility in this regard. Its emergence added a new chapter in information history itself by handing over the power over opinion to every individual. Through its unique intra-personal communication design, it has made the best possible approach to spread information right from those hands of the society where the news or information has originated and tried to claim to be the reason of this biggest shift that journalism is no longer the exclusive preserve of journalists.
Really? To what extent?
A Yahoo! Research report 2011 found just 20,000 elite Twitter users produce 50% of Tweets (Twitter had 150 m users at that time) – which sounds very mass-media -. And has estimated about 10,000 of those users are journalists Tweeting about their stories. according to a new report by the Pew Research Center, in collaboration with the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation, nearly one-in-ten U.S. adults (8%) get news through Twitter, and In addition, a separate Pew Research analysis of conversations on Twitter around major news events reveals characteristic that: “Much of what gets posted centers on passing along breaking news where the conversations do not necessarily track with public opinion.” Even twitter founders such as Biz Stone says “Twitter is more about consuming media via shared links rather than people creating original content in the form of Tweets”.
Facebook (another social media tool) is also trying to make progress in its metamorphosis from a purely social platform to a news aggregator. A Pew Research 2013 Center survey of more than 5,000 Americans revealed that one in three users check the network for Headlines and 22 percent think it’s a useful way to stay on of timely updates. Around 78 percent of respondents could be considered news opportunists because they mostly see timely content when they’ve gone to the site for another reason, most likely talking to friends or checking for personal updates. According to Pew Research, because of the mass media links on facebook; around 42 percent of the people who said they read headlines on the social network also watch local TV new programs and 21 percent continue to read print newspapers to stay on top of breaking stories and then share it ahead behaving like an online newspaper selling hawkers!
Sharing Mass Media engraved a question mark on Social Media’s motto “creation and exchange of user-generated content” asking to describe what the social media really is? That’s not as compelling as the original promise of social media, and its implied challenge to the powerful owners of mass media.
Weren’t we, the people, back in charge through social media? Hadn’t we done away with the “gate keepers” of mass media?
On the other hand, The social responsibility and ethics for disseminating news and information on which all the journalist around the globe agreed upon in mid 20th century has put a question mark on Social Media because of its absent regulation, responsibilities and practicing ethical values. From cyber bullying, identity theft, harassment to enabling the spread of unreliable and false information, these are all serious downfalls which has even threaten human lives and here, according to Arianna Huffington, “it’s everywhere – and it’s going to be even more everywhere.”
So coming back to my previously posed argument of calling social media as social distribution of media, the concept is however explained considering various researches like some of them cited above which showed that how social media is again used by organizations that had controlled the flow of information before (News Agencies like AFP, API, UP, Reuters which has control over 85 percent of the flow of information). What people Tweet and post on Facebook, and the large number of links that people share are Invariably the links which belong to the same Media Organizations – Mass media, that has left no choice for the people to use media for gratification of their own needs because all the content even if it is on the screen of our television, on the front page of our newspapers or in the screens connected to the world wide web are the same. It seems that the term Social Media need to be retired and if, the links that most people share belong to large media organizations then the real way it needed to be called is Social Distribution of (Mass) Media.
MDT and FAST to create a hybrid pool of resources for knowledge sharing.
Islamabad, PK – 05 August 2014 – Media Development Trust and FAST- National University of Computer and Emerging Sciencessigned a memorandum of understanding (MOU) today to develop initiatives for development, empowerment and mainstreaming research in Pakistan. The MOU signing ceremony was held at the School of Management at FAST in the presence of faculty members and students. Mr. Adil Amin Kazi, Head of Department, School of Management, FAST and Amir Jahangir President Media Development Trust signed the MOU.
On this occasion President Media Development Trust (MDT) and CEO Mishal Pakistan, Amir Jahangir said that Media Development Trust is working with multiple academic institutions in the country to bridge the gap between academic research and industry practices. There is wide gap between industry practices and theories being taught at our universities. He said research-institutions need to have more focus on commercializing their research with increased industry-academia collaboration.
He further said that, Media Development Trust and its strategic partners Mishal Pakistan and AGAHI, in collaboration with FAST would create capacity building initiatives for the faculty and students, through interactive workshops, seminars and research initiatives on specific sectors. MDT and FAST will create a hybrid pool of resources for knowledge sharing.
Sharing his views on the occasion, Mr. M. Adil Amin Kazi, Head FAST School of Management (FSM) appreciated the initiative taken by FSM and Media Development Trust in pursuit of bridging industry-academia relationship, terming the handshake as a milestone in achieving the ultimate goal of creating, promoting & enhancing critical body of knowledge by developing analytic skill-set among scholars through research in Business & Management Sciences discipline.
Dr. Arshad Ali the Director FAST-NU and Dr. Affan A Syed Director ORIC FAST-NU also joined the ceremony and shared their confidence in this collaboration and expressed their commitment in creation of hybrid pool of resources for knowledge sharing by virtue of FSM-MDT initiative.
According to the MOU, both the organizations will work together to create research opportunities for students and faculty members in the media sphere, especially on the business credibility and ethics. The joint initiative will also create opportunities to understand issues relevant to media and content management, communications and outreach strategies. The MOU also envisaged collaboration on capacity building of students and faculty members on technical skill sets to work on the Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) of various projects as well.
Media Development Trust and FAST will work together to create Fellowships in research to improve the human capital available for the sector in Pakistan; this will lead to Industry-Academia collaborations. The MOU will also encourage excellence in research by awarding “TRUST Gold Medals”, every year for the students of Business Administration and Management Sciences achieving first positions in Bachelor and Masters Programs.
Puruesh Chaudhary, President AGAHI and Country Ambassador of the Center for International Media Ethics (CIME), while sharing her views, said that media’s contribution to the sustainability of functioning democracies is significant. Media serve as a catalyst for human development and provides the justification to create a more cognizant collective consciousness of the society. We believe this collaboration will foster an enabling atmosphere through which free and independent media can flourish with plurality, diversity and will responsibly raise the bar of professionalism for ethical media management and practices in Pakistan, Chaudhary added.
The partnership between the two leading research institution Mishal (a country partner institute of the Global Competitiveness and Benchmarking Network, World Economic Forum) and Pakistan’s top research university will identify the gaps in the knowledge ecosystem. Both the organization will work together to create a knowledge exchange program between FAST and research institutions both at domestic and global level; whereby different programs will be developed to build synergies in the field of management and communication.
Media Development Trust, through its strategic partners Mishal Pakistan and Agahi, is working on different research and advocacy projects for the development of media in Pakistan which includes, Media Credibility Index (MCI), Agahi Awards, ILM-o-AGAHI, TRUST Gold Medals for outstanding students in management, media sciences and journalism scholarships.
Media Development Trust established in 2011 is an initiative to improve industry-academia linkage through media and communication; the initiative engages leading professional and researchers in media development across the globe. Media Development Trust also creates synergies and understanding through media and communication between societies for better understanding of issues arising from cultural, social and political challenges.
The National University of Computer & Emerging Sciences has the honor of being the first multi-campus private sector university set up under the Federal Charter granted in July 2000. The University started with an impressive advantage of the Foundation FAST, it inherited five first rate computer science institutes located at Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, Peshawar and Faisalabad, in spacious buildings and prestigious settings. These institutes, individually as well as collectively, have established leadership position due to the splendid vision of an enlightened management and tireless efforts of a highly qualified faculty. Over the years FAST has become the hallmark of excellence in academic arena, domestic market and international community.
A hookah, also known as a water-pipe, is a single or multi-stemmed instrument for vaporizing and smoking flavored tobacco called shisha in which the vapor or smoke is passed through a water basin often glass-based before inhalation. It is deeply staggering to mention that despite its detrimental facet of properties, in our framework of society; its usage is very much common, which is, however, unobtrusively putting the lives at risk.
By Sharratoon, Turbat
The origin of the water-pipe is from the time of the Safavid dynasty in the Persian Empire which extended into India to where it also spread during that time. The hookah or Argyleh soon reached Egypt and the Levant during the Ottoman dynasty where it became very popular and where the mechanism was later perfected.
Furthermore, the word hookah is a derivative of “huqqa”, an Arabic term. Outside its native region, smoking the hookah has gained popularity in North America, South America, Europe, Australia, Southeast Asia, Tanzania, and South Africa, largely due to immigrants from the Levant, where it is especially popular, who introduced it to younger people. As we think of Hubble bubble, we need to think of its side effects as well since everybody knows that it is too much harmful to health by causing a lot of diseases; such as Asthma, lungs and mouth cancer, etc.
Due to Hubble bubble our internal parts of body will be affected. It is very much shocking that in Baloch societies it is seen more than any other societies. Instead of being a hot place, people are yet using it terribly, especially, the women. We can say that it has become a fashion for Baloch people.
We have observed the males are mostly against it, but on the other hand the females and even small girls are in habit of it, though they are very much afraid of their males, but in their absence they use it. Surprisingly, many people say that it smells nice, but how dangerous it is, nobody sees that. It is true that no one is compelled to use Hubble bubble because it is not something very much necessary. Majority of the people are aware that it is something too dangerous, but still they are using it.
What I believe our nation needs education and awareness regarding the side effects of Hubble bubble and especially the women should be taught about the danger side of it.
The pity is not that the women use it at homes only, but they also use it in those gathering where mostly kids and old people are sitting. In this way they are not harming themselves but the ones who are sitting beside and ultimately being effected as well.
So, it is now time to be aware of the facts that Hubble bubble is such a thing that hallows a person from inside.
For the rational transformation of our society into a way better one, Let’s pledge that we will free our society from certain harmful habits which is not destroying the present generation but also it is red signal for the coming generations. If we want to be happy, we are supposed to leave all those habits which damage our lives.
I am hoping for positive change in our society. Because it is we who are to come up with a change to brighten the future by working for it well in present.
Friendship is a relationship of mutual affection between two or more people. Moreover, it is a stronger form of interpersonal bond than an association. God has given lots of qualities to the human beings, but friendship is one of the biggest gifts among those all blessings. As a result, one can’t trace its quality.
By Nagma Noor, Turbat
Friendship is that relation whose building idea is given by the king of two worlds. The best way to being nearer the God is friendship. On the other hand, God has considered the worshiping human his bosom friends, so, how much importance does friendship get?
It is true that no one can live a happy life without a true friend. A few people try but they always fail in this mode of life. According to Mars Saseero, “The best thing in friendship is respect.” Until you respect a person a lot, you can never be their best friend. Men have gotten lots of blessings, health, wealth, respect, etc. But the time you are in funk, nothing comes in handy except true friend. You can share your secret to your best friend. They become happy while you are on top of the world and down in the mouth in your dark nights. We must not be at sixes and sevens after knowing human beings are selfish as it is the reality of today’s world.
According to some people, “Friendship is the name of taking and giving.” If it is so then the name of friendship must be converted into “trade” and friends’ name into traders. Besides, The feeling of friendship mostly grows in the heart of those who love peaceful lives and never keep eyes in the negative work of the people. There is a basic rule of friendship that never says or demands for those things which you think your friends can’t afford.
There are also some people who think we should do as many deeds of goodness to our friends as they do. Now, what is this? Actually, heart us supposed to be wide in friendship and there is difference of earth and sky between friendship and traders.
It is disheartening to note that in common life people think more about their goats and cows than friends. Always try to find positive-minded friends rather than narrow-minded ones. If the situations push you to break the relation with a friend that must be in such a way that your friend must not get hurt by that. A moment of life comes when the friends give slip to each other, and become busy in their own responsibilities.
It is my humble request to all sisters and brothers that respect your friends and know the value of them. Try to have some field days with them in present magic moment, though living on a shoestring and only enjoying a cup of tea to remain with us tomorrow.
There is no denying the fact that water means life because without water life is not possible in this world. The life of all living things; such as human beings, animals, insects and plants etcetera, totally depends on water.
By Durdana Ibrahim, Turbat
Water is important to the mechanics of the human body. The body cannot work without it, just as a car cannot run without gas and oil. In fact, all the cell and organ functions that make up our entire anatomy and physiology depend on water for their functioning. Water makes up more than two thirds of human body weight, and without water, we would die in a few days. The human brain is made up of 95% water; blood is 82% and lungs 90%. A mere 2% drop in our body’s water supply can trigger signs of dehydration: fuzzy short-term memory, trouble with basic math, and difficulty focusing on smaller print, such as a computer screen.
Water serves as a lubricant in digestion and almost all other body processes. The water in our saliva helps facilitate chewing and swallowing, ensuring that food will slide easily downs the esophagus. Water also lubricates our joints and cartilages and allows them to (pardon the pun) move more fluidly. When dehydrated, the body rations water away from the joints. Less lubrication equals greater friction and that can cause joint, knee and back pain potentially leading to injuries and arthritis. Even our eyeballs need plenty of lubrication to work well and remain healthy.
To see the importance of water, we need to use it in a very good so that can save it from its wastage. As we see the availability of water on this earth, about 71 percent of the Earth’s surface is water-covered, and the oceans hold about 96.5 percent of all Earth’s water; but surely all the water is not usable for the human beings. 97.5% of all water on Earth is salt water, leaving only 2.5% as fresh water nearly 70% of that fresh water is frozen in the icecaps of Antarctica and Greenland; most of the remainder is present as soil moisture, or lies in deep underground aquifers as groundwater not accessible to human use.
1% of the world’s fresh water (~0.007% of all water on earth) is accessible for direct human uses. This is the water found in lakes, rivers, reservoirs and those underground sources that are shallow enough to be tapped at an affordable cost. Only this amount is regularly renewed by rain and snowfall, and is therefore available on a sustainable basis.
No doubt, we are not using the water in a good way. On one hand, we are making the water of rivers and other resources dirty by throwing dust and garbage; on the other hand, we use water uselessly. The same water we drink which is full of germs. As a result we are getting or falling a victim to a lot of diseases. By drinking unclean contaminated water we are playing with our health. We use water at our homes for different purposes; such as, drinking, washing and cleaning, but mostly it is seen that we drop ample water which is not to be done by all manner of means.
We need to save water not just for ourselves but for our coming generations as well because if we save water today, by this water we can save a lot of coming generations. So, it is my humble request to everybody living on this earth to save water since by doing so we can save water not just for human beings but also for the other creatures of the world as well. Let’s pledge today that we will not let water be wasted so that we can maintain the beauty of the world.
By Ahmed Khan
Recently, a statement of Dr Malik Baloch, the chief minister Balochistan appeared in media, claiming that he takes guarantee that his government has abolished the series of throwing mutilated bodies of Baloch political workers, in entire Balochistan. Consequently, in Balochistan, no protest is being witnessed against the finding of mutilated bodies, which was on high before and in early days of his provincial government.
It is fact that when Baloch leader or workers’ bodies were found, so cities and town were got shut and still. The roads and highways were blocked by Baloch youth specifically and commonly by masses. World would witness their protest whether they would not take action against it in the pursuance of their interests.
Baloch Pro-independent organizations called Baloch masses for struggle, and in response people Baloch also thronged-out on roads in order to seek a destination in the guidance of discussed parities. Unfortunately, the Pro-Independent parties failed to keep adhered the masses with them, and forge them into kiln of ideology.
Pro-independent parties were obliged to educate masses and mold them into pure ideological nation, and then they wouldn’t avert any type of sacrifice for motherland and would not compromise on the interests of upcoming generations at any cost.
A Baloch intellectual on initial stage of current uprising said, “Honesty is key to success and if these parties with their workers are genuine, will win, and if they are fake will disappear after a period.” This is the sharp time to prove the mentioned statement that young Baloch intellectual foretold. The dissection of pro-independent parties is indicating their dishonesty. Their accusations simplified and eased to raze them, and they have pushed Baloch Nation into an uncertain condition. By now, the situations are implying that nation may trust in any leader or party, hence it is great political loss and misfortune of Baloch Nation.
After 2002, the objective circumstances of Balochistan were fully favoring to nationalist politics for separatists. The so-called parliamentarian parties never were expected for being liberator for Balochs. They also didn’t work for national renaissance too, but merely ever remained engage in gain of personal interests.
Ironically, the separatist parties also couldn’t perform an outstanding role but they have dissented and have formed into fractions. By now they are exploiting their all energies to nagging, criticizing and leverage, mutually. The unsuccessful alliances, irresponsible attitudes, egoism and selfishness and clout have impacted on Baloch to disbelieve in them and they are also disheartened toward Baloch Nationalism. As result, Baloch masses are getting sidelined to these parties including nationalists. Now Baloch people are reluctant to join incredible parties’ calls for protests and rallies.
Dr Mailk Baloch has studied the situations and status-quo of separatist’s parties and released statement that there is no protest and dumping of mutilated bodies. In fact, the discussed series is going on without any abatement, but pro-independent parties are distrusted and lost strength including street power. It is time they review on their decade stretching history and policies; otherwise, they will be disappeared, totally. Merely statements in newspapers never prove their entity on ground. If they are existing, so refute Dr Malik’s statement and demonstrate their power and strength.
By Tariq Baloch
Eid is an Islamic religious festival, fervently celebrated by Muslim with religious sentiments. When People were fluttering by happiness of Eid and were busy in tasting various dishes as commemorating this joyful day. Meanwhile the relatives of Missing Balochs were protesting on roads for the sake of safe recovery of their endear ones. These aggrieved people instead of celebrating and attiring were marching on Roads of Quetta city and demanding for breakage of silence to United Nations and Humanitarian organizations.
Voice for Baloch Missing Persons (VBMP), had given the call, comprising on missing persons relatives. The victim families’ members in large number appeared for protest including women and children. The protesters got mustered in front of Quetta Press club where the token hunger strike camp of VBMP is erected. The protestors were holding snaps of their missing endears, place-cards and banners inscribed with demanding sentences for safe release of missing Baloch political workers.
The protestors marched on Shahra-e-Iqbal, Jinnah Road and walked toward Balochistan High court and Assembly premises. During the march, protestors were chanting slogan “Release the Baloch Missing Political workers”. “United Nation and Humanitarian organizations break their silence and poke in Baloch issue and take action against human right violations in Balochistan”.
The protestors after marching on roads reached to the inception point of event the Quetta press club, where the leading figures delivered speeches to gathering and media men who were there to attended procession for media coverage.
Mama Qadeer Baloch, the vice president of Voice for Baloch Missing Person (VBMP) said, “The State authorities are taking any serious initiative about Baloch Missing Persons; consequently, this issue is getting engrave with the passage of time. More than 15000 people have been missing since than 2001, and among them more than 1400 mutilated bodies have been found. The hundreds dead bodies of Baloch political workers have been found after formation of present government. Women and children are also missing in great number. The people have gone to missing and their mutilated bodies are being found, their guilt is this they were voicing up for their genuine rights. Qadeer Baloch spoke to assembly.
Other speakers also addressed to gathering and in their discourses they criticized on Human Rights Organizations about showing apathy to Baloch issue and negligence to here’s human rights violations.
On the one hand people are agonized that they don’t celebrate Eid, the day of jubilation and even come-out on roads to protest and cry for release of their endears, but on the others hand, the state authorities are busy in dilly-dolly to these aggrieved people by constituting the commissions and investigating teams formation. For pretext to international organizations and media the so-called commission that couldn’t bring a single missing person on surface, neither they could halt the series of throwing mutilated bodies of Baloch political workers.
Bolan Voice Report
Zarjan a Baloch women established protest camp in front of National Press Club Islamabad. Zarjan Baloch is spouse of Zahid Baloch, the chairman of Baloch Student Organization (Azad), who was arrested in Quetta Satellite Town and area of capital in the presence of hundreds citizens. Comrade Lateef Johar, a Baloch Student activist sit on Hunger Strike for more than a month, however, he failed to gain attention of state authorities by his extreme way of protest.
ZarJan Baloch by a press conference at national press club and several times from her protest camp also spoke to media persons that she had pitched-up that camp there in mid of hot and suffocating weather to voice-up for safe release of her husband. “At the time of arrest, the security official said they have apprehended him for merely interrogation and later on he will be let to go. We have lodged first investigate report (FIR) at police station, too.” Zarjan informed.
Zarjan Baloch further said: “Many people witnessed the event when security officials were picking to Zahid Baloch and they are also ready to testify as eye-witness. As against the truth, the government and security official are not consented about preserving Zahid Baloch with them.” She blamed.
Zarjan Baloch said that she had come to capital city of country where rulers reside, with intention to protest accompanied her minor child to awake the conscious of rulers who are denying justice to them.
By Adam Nazar Marri
A leaked ship sinks in the sea when water pours in it, likewise a society moves towards destruction while evils and vices take place in it without any resistance. It is noteworthy to mention here that culture of silence has become common in our society. Despite noticing wickedness and misconduct in the society, people keep calm and do not dare to resist against culprits and wicked persons. There is a well-known saying, “A society or a community does not spoil by evil deeds of ferocious and callous people rather it deteriorates by dint of silence and calmness of great and responsible people.”
Silence culture has given opportunity to miscreants and scoundrels to achieve their targets very easily. When we see a transgressor or a criminal doing crime in the society and we ignore and let them to do their misdeeds. Resultantly, crime and vices level increase in the society. It does not mean that where people speak, write and control criminals and narcotics sellers, there crime and narcotics would be at zero level. There may crime and vices prevail but definitely at minimum level.
More significantly, almost everyone knows about his city or village’s dangerous gangster, heroin sellers, even some people knows target killers but no one has mettle to act against them, however, fear is the biggest barrier in the way of removal of these injurious and devastating elements. The fear and timidity force us to keep silent. The main reason behind prevalence of vices and evil deeds in our society is the culture of silence. When writers halt their pens, when leaders and responsible persons stop speaking against notorious people and culprits. In turn, callous and miscreants play their monstrous role and target killings, kidnapping for ransom, gambling, drinking etc become order of the day everywhere.
More importantly, Arabia before rise of Islam was completely in darkness and despondency. There was no limit of callousness and brutality, female children was buried alive, gambling and drinking of wine were common. At every side just vices and evils were seen. No one could dare to resist against prevailing crimes and evils. When the Messenger had felt the deep length of wickedness and brutality of people. In the long run, He struggled and saved the Arabia, purified the society and transferred darkness into light.
Conclusively, if we see brutality and wickedness at high level today, because there is no one to speak, write or act against culprits and wrongdoers. Our society portrays a picture of grief. Kidnappers kidnap people for ransom easily, targets killers succeed in their missions, narcotics sellers sell their narcotics without any trouble…. And why silence? And till when? Should we sit and watch and let their tide sweep us away? What about our next generation? Should we allow them to fall prey to monstrous evils? No and never. We must speak and we must be bold and let not grow evils and make our societies civilized. It is responsibility of every students, teachers, writers and think tanks to shun fear and trepidations and give a brave fighting against scoundrels and malefactors in order for purification and civilization of society.
By Nagma Noor Bolani
History remains a witness of those moments in which something embarrassing or memorable occurs. Simultaneously, in 1980 the blackest days of Pakistan began while a dangerous kind of drug “opium” put its steps in Pakistan and since then it has become kind of disease for us.
Opium is an addictive drug prepared from the juice of poppy “Palaver somniferous”, used illicitly as a narcotic. It is a kind of poison from which all kinds of drugs are adopted. In the past most dangerous drug was heroin, while in present it is crystal which is shaped like dry milk by the usage of which one can get his body decayed within three years.
Firstly, America made sheeshah for its soldiers in order to be sleepless during the combat, but unfortunately, being used in every nook of and cranny of the world. Afghanistan is the world’s largest grower of illegal opium poppy and produces approximately 90 percent of the world’s illicit opium. Nearly all poppy cultivation occurs in the southern and western parts of the country, especially Helmand Province. Instability in these regions allows criminal networks, insurgent groups, and illicit cultivation and drug production to thrive. This is the country which supplies drugs to the other countries of the world.
Drug addiction is the worst but one of the biggest businesses in the world. It is a kind of weapon which is indirectly used wiping out the individuals of the countries and making them next to nothing like Pakistan.
Recently, two children were killed by their own mother in Karachi due to the father who was in the grip of narcotics and engrossed in his own sunny days and could not provide three times food to his small baby. Though he was a loving father but his eyes were closed with a black intoxicating cloth due to which he could not see the tears of his small babies. Likewise, if these situations continue in Pakistan, the individuals with request to the government will be in hot water.
It is my humble request to the government to apprehend and take incharge of the people doing this illegal work openly and take a high level action on this issue otherwise our country will be as dark as the gloomy nights are.
Yousaf Ajab Baloch
Eid is Muslims’ religious festival to celebrate it happily and wish others happiness and peace on the auspicious occasion.it is the fifth year, while the Muslim world and other parts of Pakistan rejoice Eid day with their relatives, a number of Baloch families including children, women, aged men and young human rights activists gather in Quetta and carryout rallies against enforced disappearances’ and safe release of disappeared Baloch.
To register their protest on this religious festival against disappearance of Baloch from different walks of life the Voice for Baloch Missing Persons (VBMP) rallied again enforced disappearances’ on this Eid as well. The protesters including women, children and aged parents of missing persons chanted slogans against enforced disappearances’ of their loved ones. They marched through different roads of the city and later staged a demonstration outside the Quetta Press Club.
It is worth mentioning that families of abducted Baloch have been protesting on Eid days every year for past five years to express their concerns over abduction and custodial killings allegedly by state security forces and intelligence agencies.
According to Mama Qadeer Baloch, vice president of Voice for Baloch Missing Persons (VBMP), they protest to gain attention of the world community towards tragic deteriorating state affairs in the Balochistan.
Voice for Baloch Missing Persons VBMP, an human rights organization that is struggling for the safe release of Baloch missing persons, numbers missing persons more than 15,000, while more than 1600 decomposed and bullet-riddled dead bodies of them have been recovered in different areas of Balochistn. However, the recovered number of bodies from Tutak mass graves is aside from the above mentioned figure. VBMP is of the view of having complete data of missing person.
Previously, Voice for Baloch Missing Persons leadership provided the data of missing persons to UN working group that visited Quetta in 2012. The same organization also held historic long march from Quetta to Islamabad to highlight the predicament of this humanitarian crisis, even the five years long protest camp of VBMP for missing Baloch could not make state to soften their policies regarding issue of abducted Baloch. They have been appealing the United Nations, the European Union, Amnesty International and other humanitarian organizations for taking notice of enforced disappearances and abduct, kill and dump to play their part in recovery of thousands of missing Baloch. However, the international human rights organization have not played any satisfactory role.
Though, the abduct, kill and dump policy of Baloch was launched in dictator General Pervez Musharraf’s military regime in Balochistan, however, it is still continued unabated despite claims of democracy in Pakistan. The provincial government of Dr Malik Baloch seems stranded pertaining the issue of recovery of dead bodies and abductions. Dr Malik and his ruling party have not been able to change the mindset of state policymakers regarding the Baloch genocide, yet Dr Malik claims to have got stopped the extrajudicial murder of Baloch political activist and other from various fields of life.
The abduction of Baloch, recovery of their decomposed dead bodies and mass graves in Khuzdar must have been great concerns and menaces to civil society, national and international human rights organizations, United Nations and Islamabad; regrettably, these human rights violations have never been taken seriously. It is high time the responsible authorities, Islamabad, champions of human rights defense to take serious measures for the safe release of Baloch political activists, teachers, and doctors and lawyers so that ways may be made for talks with Baloch nationalist.
By MB Baloch, Awaran
Human beings are consistently under the ashes of catastrophic disasters, be the manmade and natural, but the aftermath has similar damages. For a prosperous livelihood, man is in unremitting endeavor to safe his own side. In this self-satisfying race everyone is hard working to win the competition. No one willing accept to lag behind in this cynic race.
Undoubtedly, this is the basic right of every one to build up his/her property and make a gorgeous house for survival. If a powerful person can ransack the property of anyone, the victim by the power of his shoulder tries to resist him and safe his property and households. When a sudden natural disaster comes then the owner of property become helpless to show his anger, because it is a nature fact, everyone has to face the natural happenings. The same case is happened with the people of District Awaran. The whole district jolted by a gigantic earthquake last year. Approximately, 95 percent houses had utterly destroyed. So the people have no claim upon God but they are in prolong wait that might any support will come from the side of power holders. The District is considered the most backward one in Pakistan. The absence of interest towards administration is heart-touching. During the aftershocks CM Dr Malik made tall claims that District would bring in a level of metropolitan city.
Additionally, the whole infrastructure of District will be reshaped within no time. The above surprising pledges yet have given a practical shape. The poor public still under the own made temporary houses, a heavy rain can further will add miseries in their lives.
Scholarships are also announced for the students, sadly by passing of moments the promises remained pipe dream. Recently, 16 million rupees announced to provide shelters to people. Surprisingly, the District authority trying to get a chance of corruption to maintain the culture of their peers. People are crying for shelter besides authority is playing a barbarian game over the rights of poor creatures. This lacks the checks of balance really a mind boggling.
The odor of corruption is coming from the earthquake hit area is an inhuman and immoral action. This mind set without any hesitation is exploiting the innocent poor; unfortunately no one is here to response them. It is brazenly a shameful history that in this advance and technological time, District Awaran is showing a bleak picture. No concept of electricity and pure water. The whole District only has only one hospital but without any modern health care machine. The education institutions are showing a dismal picture. Mostly teachers are selected on the basis of Agaz-e-Haqooq Balochistan package; they know nothing about the teaching method and about students psyche. They only come on salary day and get disappear from the scene for whole month.
Road infrastructure is also showing an untidy scène. Recently, Abdul Qudoos Bezinjoo was elected as a deputy speaker from the District, only during the earthquake he had visited by aero-plane. He does not only same time was elected from the District but since 4 decades he has been ruling the poor people of District, sadly yet has not a historical job to convince the public. So it is a great time for the corridor of powers to think about the miserable condition of inhabitants.
The smell of corruption that is about to emit from the given balance must be stopped without further delay. A committee should be arranged to provide basic rights of life and shelters to people. If the national party is considers a middle class representing party, then prove it pragmatically. If again the power holders could not get lesson from the history, may be the public have no saying but the upcoming time never forget them, because time is cruel no one can escape from it.
By Adnan Amir
The Baloch Students Organization, or BSO, has earned itself national recognition in recent months. However, many outside of Balochistan hardly know either its history or various factions and their respective affiliations. Below is an attempt to trace BSO’s roots and map its various factions.
The earliest available educational records of Balochistan are of 1891. In that year, present day Balochistan had only one high school and two middle schools—one for girls, the other for boys. Only 42 students, of which 15 were girls enrolled in these schools. Fast forward to early 1950s: the lack of an institute of higher education in the entire province of Balochistan meant that a number of Baloch youth started going to Quetta for education. In Quetta, they met Baloch politician Ghaus Baksh Bizenjo, Journalist Agha Abdul Karim Shorish and poet Gul Khan Naseer. They were impressed by them and especially by the poetry of Gul Khan Naseer. Then, on 6th October 1958, the Pakistan Army arrested Khan of Kalat and this became a turning point in the history of Baloch Nationalism. (1)
In 1961, Baloch students studying in various institutes in Quetta came together to form the Warna Waninda Gal (Youth Educational Forum). Abdul Hakeem Baloch became the first president of this organization and Siddique Azat the General Secretary. The stated objectives of the organization included “Promoting Balochi language, literature and debating political conditions.” (2)
Apart from Quetta, Karachi was the other major city with a large population of Baloch students. Here, they established the Baloch Students Educational Organization (BSEO) in 1962 with the prime objective of bringing together Baloch students in Karachi under one umbrella. (3) Then in 1965, at an annual session of the BSEO, it was decided to remove the word ‘educational’ from the name of the organization. It therefore, simply became the Baloch Students Organization or BSO. (4)
Thus there were now two student organizations representing Baloch students. Realizing that this, in effect, divided the organizational strength of Baloch students who were already a minority, the office bearers and members of BSO and Warna Waninda Gal started negotiations regarding a possible merger. These efforts bore fruit and on 26th November 1967 the two organizations merged into one, keeping the nomenclature BSO. A manifesto, called Dastoor ul Amal, was also issued, enumerating the main aims of the organization as the promotion of free and secular education; promotion of the Balochi language, literature and civilization; and the abolition of the one-unit policy that limited provincial autonomy.(5)
The dream of a single Baloch student organization, however, was short lived. Less than a year after the merger of Quetta and Karachi based organizations, it split up into two factions: BSO and BSO-Anti Sardar. The account of how this happened depends on who the story is told by. Ghaus Baksh Bizenjo, a prominent Baloch politician, has written in his book that it was a matter of a minority faction under the leadership of Rahim Zafar breaking away from the parent body. At the time, Bizenjo’s eldest son, Bizen Bizenjo was the president of BSO. After the split, the majority faction came under the leadership of Bizen Bizenjo and Abdul Hayee Baloch. (6)
Rahim Zafar, on the other hand, who held the post of General Secretary of BSO prior to the split, offers an entirely different account in his own book. According to him, Bizenjo and Abdul Hayee Baloch called a night time convention of students from Quetta, of which he was not informed. At this convention, Abdul Hayee Baloch was elected President and Bizenjo General Secretary. Zafar’s claim is that since he was the General Secretary at the time, such decisions regarding the future of the organization could not have been made in his absence. He, thus, subsequently called a convention of his supporters and formed BSO-Anti Sardar. (7)
Independent sources, however, claim that the BSO split was a result of lust for power, with both Zafar and the duo of Abdul Hayee Baloch and Bizenjo desiring to lead the organization. (8)
There are also rumors suggesting that the government of Pakistan, wary of a united Baloch student body, also played a role in its breakup. Most members of BSO-Anti Sardar party, including Zafar, later joined the Pakistan People’s Party (PPP). (9)
BSO led by Abdul Hayee Baloch, on the other hand, became a supporter of the National Awami Party (NAP) and informally came to be called BSO-NAP. (NAP in Balochistan was dominated by Sardars and thus the opposing faction named itself BSO-Anti Sardar.) BSO was also given due importance by NAP, which consulted it before every major decision. BSO president Abdul Hayee Baloch contested the national assembly elections of 1970 on a NAP ticket, defeating Prince Yahya Baloch in the process. (10)
BSO, for its part, actively campaigned for NAP in the elections and played a part in NAP’s victory in Balochistan.
In 1972, at a council session held in Karachi, BSO-Anti Sardar was renamed BSO-Awami.(11)
In February 1973, the central government led by Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, toppled the elected NAP government in Balochistan. In May the same year, it gave orders for the army to commence military operations in the province. During all these years, BSO-Awami (formerly BSO-Anti Sardar) remained active supporters of the PPP (Prominent BSO-Awami members joined PPP, those still in BSO-Awami opposed PPP during operation. Their opposition however was mild as compared to other faction of BSO). Several Baloch tribes, in particular, the Mengal and the Marri, reciprocated the military operation via an armed struggle. Even as several members of BSO actively participated in this armed struggle, others tried peaceful means of protest. A BSO activist, Abdul Majeed Lango, was killed as he tried to assassinate Bhutto in Quetta—the hand grenade he was attempting to hurl on Bhutto, exploded in his own hands. (12)
In 1977, General Zia ul Haq released the NAP leaders who had been taken into custody by the previous government and ended the military operation in Balochistan. NAP leaders, for their part, also called off the armed struggle in Balochistan. This action, however, turned the BSO vehemently against NAP. In 1978, the BSO even dismissed then Chairman Mueem Khan Baloch on grounds that he supported the NAP.
In 1979, Hamid Baloch, a BSO activist, was arrested for attempting to kill Colonel Khalfan of the Oman army in Turbat. Khalfan was in Balochistan to recruit members for Oman Army and BSO opposed this recruitment. Hameed Baloch was tried by a military court and condemned to death. The death penalty was carried out on 11th June 1981. (13) In his final will Hameed Baloch expressed the wish that the two factions of BSO come together. (14)
The period of Zia ul Haq’s dictatorial regime saw several atrocities being carried out against Baloch students. In May 1982, eight school children, most of them under 14 years of age, were protesting peacefully for the restoration of electricity to their school in Turbat. A military court sentenced all eight to three months of rigorous imprisonment.
In 1983, General Rahimuddin, the then Governor of Balochistan, further incensed feelings when he said that he “would not mind keeping all Baloch as shepherds or laborers because their attitude as students is not accommodating.” From 1973 to 1985, 60 percent of all prisoners in Balochistan were students, many of whom were severely beaten and humiliated during detention. (15)
Given this situation, and in view of Hameed Baloch’s will, the two BSO factions decided to unite and a single BSO once again came into being in 1984. However, this was a doomed exercise right from the beginning, with former differences continuing to fester. The attempt at unity, therefore, failed and in 1986 the two factions separated once again, this time splitting into BSO, led by Dr. Yaseen Baloch, and BSO-Sohb—led by Dr. Kahwar Baloch. This was a terrible phase in history of BSO as members of these two factions violently attacked each other in campuses and hostels. (16) This violent aftermath only seemed to prove that the BSO was damaging the Baloch nation rather than doing anything constructive for it.
In 1988, Zia ul Haq sacked the government of Mohammad Khan Junejo and announced new elections. The main political parties in Balochistan at that time consisted of the Pakistan National party (PNP) led by Ghaus Baksh Bizenjo; the Progressive Youth Movement (PYM) led by Raziq Bugti and Habib Jalib; and the Balochistan National Movement (BNM) led by Abdul Hayee Baloch and Akhtar Mengal. BSO, led by Yaseen Baloch faction (BSO-Yaseen) decided to support BNM, while BSO-Sohb, led by Kahwar Baloch, took to supporting PYM. (17)
In 1990, a dispute in the leadership of BNM once again proved how student politics in Balochistan had become a pawn in the hands on political parties. After serving two years as general secretary, Akhtar Mengal thought he should become president of the party. Dr. Abdul Hayee Baloch, the president at the time, didn’t agree. This resulted in the splitting of BNM into BNM-Hayee and BNM-Mengal. (18) BSO-Yaseen became a supporter of BNM-Hayee and BSO-Sohb became supporter of BNM-Mengal, renaming itself BSO-Mengal.(19)
In 1995, the Balochistan National Party (BNP) was created as a result of the merger of BNM-Mengal, PNP and PYM. In 1997, Akhtar Mengal of BNP was elected Chief Minister of Balochistan. Then on 28th May 1998, Pakistan conducted its nuclear tests in the Chagai District of Balochistan. Akhtar Mengal protested against not being taken into confidence regarding the tests, thereby earning the wrath of establishment. At a council session the same year, the BNP spilt into BNP-Mengal and BNP-Awami. (20) As a result BSO-Mengal also spilt up—BSO-Aman became the student wing of BNP-Mengal, and BSO-Istaar (Star) allied itself with BNP-Awami. (21)
1999 saw the cessation of political activity in Balochistan with General Pervez Musharraf imposing martial law, but in 2002, when Musharraf announced elections, electoral politics picked up once again. BSO-Hayee, that was formed in 1990, split into two factions—BSO-Nadir Quddus and BSO-Azad. BNP-Awami, which had broken away from BNP in 1998 further, broke into two—one group retaining the name BNP-Awami, while the other named itself Balochistan National Democratic Party (BNDP). BSO-Istaar, the student wing of the erstwhile BNP-Awami denounced both factions and proclaimed it non-aligned. Later, in the same year, BSO-Istaar merged with BSO-Azad to form BSO-Muthaida. There was a realization that BSO had been reduced to a mere plaything of political parties and the formation of BSO-Muthaida was an effort to make BSO independent. However, this meant that there still were three factions of BSO—BSO-Nadir Quddus, which functioned as the student wing of National Party; BSO-Aman, the student wing of BNP-Mengal; and the independent BSO-Muthaida. (22)
December 2005 saw re-intensification of the Balochistan conflict with the army starting operations in Dera Bugti and Kohlu. The political situation demanded that all political parties of Balochistan come together. The dream of a single Baloch party never came true, but all factions of BSO did merge to form a United BSO in February 2006. (23) However, the egos of the student leaders and the interests of different political parties, once again paved way for a breakup. Just two months into the merger, BSO once again split into three factions: BSO-Azad, BSO-Pajjar and BSO-Mohiuddin. BSO-Azad supports the new BNM, BSO-Pajjar supports National Party and BSO-Mohiuddin supports BNP-Mengal. These factions and their political affiliations have remained the same since 2006. (24)
The contributions of BSO to the society of Balochistan have been numerous. It raised awareness among the Baloch students and organized them. Many leaders of BSO such as Abdul Hayee Baloch, Habib Jalib and Yaseen Baloch went on to become prominent politicians of Balochistan. BSO has always rejected the state sponsored differences between Baloch and Brahui (while the latter is a different language, its speakers are also Baloch). BSO rejected the persecution of Zikri community, which is not considered Muslims by religious clerics and also actively campaigned against one-Unit and supported NAP in 1970 elections. However, these achievements have been over shadowed by the petty politics of its leaders. (25)
A cursory glance at the history of BSO shows that it has never been truly united since its inception in 1967. The reasons for its often-acrimonious breakups can be attributed to the selfish attitude of BSO leaders, the interference of Baloch political parties, manipulation by the federal government and the tribal culture of Balochistan, which does not easily tolerate dissent. The undemocratic attitude of its leaders is also to blame—they have tried to remain leaders while avoiding internal elections. This ultimately frustrates junior members and they break away at some point.
If the leaders of BSO had shown political maturity in 1968 and first breakup had been averted, then perhaps the history of BSO would have been different. In 2006 the military operation was in full swing and under such circumstances break up of BSO was nothing short of a disaster. Now 47 years since its formation it cannot unequivocally be said that the contribution of BSO to Baloch society has been entirely positive. Rather its failure to stay united means that it’s potential as a student organization has been largely frittered away.
(Courtesy to View Point)
- Essays on Baloch National Struggle in Pakistan: Emergence, Dimensions and Repercussions, Janmahmad. Gosha-e-Adab, 1989. P: 214
- Sang-e-Larzan, Abdul Rahim Zafar.BaluceaLuwazonk Publications, 2011. P: 36
- Balochistan Ki Pukaar, Shakeel Ahmad Baloch. Gosha-e-Adab, 2004. P: 27
- Janmahmad. P: 216
- In Search of Solutions, (edited by B. M. Kutty) Mir GhausBakshBizenjo. Pakistan Study Center, University of Karachi, 2009. P: 137
- Zafar. P: 59-78
- Interview with Ex-Office bearer of BSO.
- Janmahmad. P: 218
- Janmahmad. P: 221
- Baloch. P:28
- Janmahmad. P: 219
- Janmahmad. P: 226
- Janmahmad. P: 219
- Janmahmad.P: 229-230
- Baloch. P:29-30
- Baloch. P: 31
- Interview with Ex-Office bearer of BSO.
- Baloch. P: 32
- Balochistan: Aazadi se Subai be-Ikhtiaritak, Ahmad Saleem. Jumhoori Publications, 2013. P: 81
- Baloch. P: 33
- Baloch. P: 33-34
- The End of BSO?Malik Siraj Akbar.https://gmcmissing.wordpress.com/2009/01/04/the-end-of-bso(Jan. 4, 2009)
- Interview with Ex-Office bearer of BSO.
- Janmahmad. P: 227
All celestial object spear to be attached to an invisible sphere of infinite size centered on the Earth. Known as the celestial sphere, this seems to spin around the Earth once o day, although it is actually the Earth that is rotating. The portion of the celestial sphere seen from the Earth depends on the observer’s latitude, the time of night, and the time of year.
There are various important points and lines in the celestial sphere, similar to those on the earth’s globe. Directly over the Earth’s poles lie the celestial poles, around which the sphere appears to turn each day. The celestial equator is a circle on the celestial equator sphere above the Earth’s the celestial sphere above the Earth’s equator. Another circle, known as the ecliptic, represents the Sun’s apparent path around the sphere each year. Of course, Sun’s motion is actually due to the earth orbiting the Sun; hence the ecliptic is really the plane of the Earth’s orbit projected on the celestial sphere. Because the Earth’ axis is tiled at 23.5 degrees, the celestial equator is tilted at the same angle to the ecliptic.
How much of the celestial sphere we can see depends on our latitude. From either pole, only half the sky can ever be seen; on any night, objects circle the celestial pole but do not rise or set (they are circumpolar). At the equator, the whole celestial sphere can be seen in a year; the celestial poles lie on the horizons to the north and south, and all objects rise and set. At multitudes, all of one celestial hemisphere is visible over a year, plus part of the other one. Only some objects are circumpolar.
TIME IF NIGHT AND TIME OF YEAR
As the earth spins, the stars seem to move across they sky; hence our view if the sky changes as the night progresses. The celestial sphere turns once in the time it takes the Earth to spin on its axis relative it the stars-23 hours 56 minutes. But the time between successive noon’s (a mean-time day) is longer, 24 hours, since the Earth is also orbiting
Earlier each night, as measured in mean time. The Earth’s orbit of the Sun also means that a stat near the celestial equator that is in the night sky (and hence visible) at one time of year will be in the daytime sky (and hence invisible) six months later.
During one year, the Sun passes in front of band of constellations along the ecliptic. Collectively known as the zodiac, they from an area in which the planets are always to be seen. The dates when the Sun is in each constellation no longer accord with the date attached to the astrological house of the same name.
By Saher Baloch
IT couldn’t be more ironic. As we enter Marri Camp, near Shalkot — an area outside Quetta playing host to an estimated 100,000 members of the Marri tribe — songs lauding the land that is Pakistan start playing on the radio. At a nearby peak, flags installed by the separatists fly high. A feeling of being completely unwelcome follows. Mud houses — some intact, some caving in due to continuing search operations or plain neglect — can be seen. As the song continues our car swerves on the dirt path leading towards the final resting place of the Marri chieftain, Khair Baksh Marri. What was earlier a bare graveyard is now under a tent, surrounded by carpets, and equipped with a solar panel and a water cooler. In the middle is a graveyard with flags of independent Balochistan flying above, most of them handmade, and on the right of the rugged plain white plaques are installed row after row. Some of the plaques carry in Balochi the names of those who have disappeared over the years. Each has a name of the missing person, his tribe, date of birth, date of disappearance and of recovery (if someone is found, that is) inscribed in black. Other plaques are blank, waiting to be inscribed, I am curtly informed. Most people, the majority of them men, refuse to speak. Those who do, speak in monosyllables. Two months have passed since the memorial was rebuilt. It was destroyed by the Frontier Corps a few days after it was built three months back. “They didn’t want this place to turn into a mazaar [shrine],” says a journalist speaking on the condition of anonymity. “But that’s exactly what happened soon after the Marri chieftain passed away and he was laid to rest here. People want to know where the disappeared are. Many know the answer, but are too scared to articulate it.”
When it comes to the disappeared of Balochistan, the answers are very few. Seven months ago, a shepherd found “bones lying around a mound in Tootak”. Though a judicial tribunal was formed on Feb 1 by the provincial government and Balochistan High Court judge Noor Mohammad Meskanzai went to investigate the graves as head of the tribunal, the findings of the report are still awaited. It was reported a few weeks ago that the report had been given to the chief minister of Balochistan and a decision on whether or not to make the report public would be made after his visit from abroad. Now, it is said the report is sealed and will be made public after the permission of the Supreme Court that took suo motu notice of the case earlier this year.
“This report will never come to the fore,” says a high court lawyer who is not authorised to speak to the media because he accompanied the tribunal during the judicial inquiry. “It is similar to the Hamoodur Rehman Commission formed in 1972. The original report never came out, though there was public outcry and debate over the atrocities committed in what was formerly East Pakistan.” He added that most people who were part of the tribunal on mass graves “are either being sidelined or facing threats by some elements actively involved in disturbing the law and order of Balochistan. Since becoming a part of this commission, my phones are being tapped. And I have to constantly prove my loyalty to my country rather than my expertise as a lawyer.” A few more bodies were found in March after the discovery of the graves in February. “We believed that an area that has been tampered with will reveal itself as a possible mass grave,” says the lawyer. “But a few of the graves we later found were in the ground that didn’t seem like it had been touched for years. This means the mass graves have not been a recent phenomenon. But who’d say that, without losing their life?” Fighting for the recovery of the missing persons since 2009, after receiving his son’s mutilated body, Abdul Qadeer Baloch — better known as Mama Qadeer — holds a vigil at the press club every day. But this afternoon he wants to speak about a security guard that has been deputed outside his camp. “I don’t want to be killed by him,” he says. “I have been sitting here for years now, where was the security then, and why now?” Calming down a little eventually, he speaks about the report and says it will be published for sure. “When half of those responsible are settled abroad or retired or dead or no longer worthy of being protected.”
The subject has been taken from book of Taj Mohammad Breseeg “Baloch Nationalism, its origin and development”.
THE EXPANSION OF BALOCH ETHNO-LINGUISTIC COMMUNITY
Consequently, resistance against alien inroads over long periods of time instilled among the Baloch tribes felling of cohesion. Headed by Mir Chakar Rind, a tribal confederacy, referred by historians as the “Rind-Lashari union”, emerged in 1485. The Rind-Lashari confederacy was one of the largest Baloch tribal confederacies stretching from Kirman in the west to the Indus River Valley in the east, thus for the first time uniting all Baloch areas in late 15th century. The confederacy as Indicated, was mainly centered around the two most powerful tribes of Rind and Lasharis, each in turn, and constituted a loosely organized federation of lesser tribes. In 1987, Mir Chakar Rind transferred the confederacy’s capital from Kech, Makkoran to Sivi, (Sibi), and eastern Balochistan. Having consolidated his power in eastern Balochistan, Mir and southern parts of Punjab in early 16th century.
In spite of being short-lived, this confederacy in many ways marks the beginning of modern history for Balochistan, if was now that the Balochi language and culture were diffused over a vast area. This period also is known as the classical era of the Balochi epic or heroic ballads and romantic poetry. Apparently most of the Balochi ballads are rooted in this period, describing the events, exploits, personalities, and the names of tribes and localities, which collaborated with the history of the 156th and 16th centuries. Parallel to the expansion of the confederacy’s hegemony in the country, Balochi language and oral literature also blossomed, thus strengthening and spreading a relatively homogenous Balochi culture and value system throughout the country. The Rind-Lashar hegemony as observed by Jan Muhammad was the first Baloch principality with pseudo-state machinery reminiscent of similar tribal monarchies in central Asia. However, like the other tribal confederacies of that time in the region, the court language of Mir Chakar was farsi (Persian).
Being depicted as the greatest hero of the Baloch history, Mir Chakar Rind receives highest tributes. It is believed that he was born in Kolwa, headquarter of Makkoran in the middle of the 15th century. He is regards as the direct descendant of the founding father of the Baloch nation. Mir Jala Khan. Describing his genealogy, Sardar Khan writes;
Chakar came of a cultured and princely stock and such is his pedigree; Chakar Ibn Ameer Shaihak ibn Amir Ishaq Ameer Kalo ibn Ameer Bizan ibn Ameer Baloch Khan ibn Ameer Rind ibn Ameer Jala Khan (Han), who lived almost between 1100-1185 A.D., and died in Bampur in Persian Balochistan.
In 1487, Mir Chakar annexed Kharan, Kalat and Las Bela to his domain. His military victory over the tribes of Kalat resulated in a unified Baloch state with its capital at Sivi (SIbi) in about 1487 AD. By the early 16th century the Baloch confederacy under Mir Chakar had established itself firmly in Markoran, Kalat highlands and the fertile districts of Kachi and Sibi in Eastern Balochistan.
It appears that the threat of Shiite Iran in the early years of 16th century would be one the decisive factors for further tribal cohesion and enlargement of the Baloch union. Probably, Shah Ismail’s success in 1501 in establishing a Shiite dynasty in Iran, and his desire to spread Shiism, forced the Sunni Baloch tribes to leave their to spread rivalry aside and strengthen the union and enlarge the Baloch confederacy’s realm. In a conversation with Maulana Abdul Haq Baloch in this subject, he strongly argued that the threat of the Shitte Safavids was one of the decisive factors for the Baloch unity in the Chakarian period. According to Maulana , the Safavids repeated raids were not aimed only to occupy Balochistan, but to compel the Baloch to accept Shiism by farce. In 1613 A.D. the powerful Safavid King Shah Abbas, sent an expedition under the then governor of Kerman Ganj Ali Khan to attack Balochistan, Subsequently, the Baloch ruler of Markkoran, Malik Shams-ud-Din was defeated in Bampur, western Balochistan.
The 16th century saw not only the rise of Safavid power in Iran, but also the Mughal power in India, and the arrival of European ships in the Sea of Oman and the Persian Gulf Towards the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Portuguese found their way to the region and captured several places along the Makkoran coast. In 1510 AD, they occupied the port of Gawadar, and burnt them. Thus, the conflict of interest of these three outside powers (the Safavids, the Mughals and the Porthguess) could not fail to affect the internal politics of the Baloch and other communities that lay between them.
Although the Baloch confederacy did not survive more than free decades (1485-1512), it brought far-reaching cultural and ethnic changes to the region; it reinforced the existing Baloch settlements, which accepted this fresh influx without any opposition. Administratively, the area divided: Sivi with the Rind, and Kech-Gandhava with the Lashari, while a Rind and Kach-Gandhava with the Lashari, while a Rind representative ruled Turan. Soon after the creation of a unified Baloch state, rivalry began between the powerful factions of the confederacy, the Rind and Lashari, and led to civil war with disastrous implications. Their differences began over the division of the fertile lands of Kacchi and Sibi, and led to a thirty-year civil war. The legendary chiefs of the two tribes, Mir Chakar Rind and Mir Gwaharm Lashari, sought help from neighboring rulers.
Finally, the Lasharis suffered a humiliating defeat at the hand of Mir Charkar and fled to Gujarat. Mir Chakar, however weakened by this war stayed in Sibi. Simultaneously he faced the invasion of the Arghuns of Kandahar. After a fiercely contested battle with Shah Baig Arghun, the ruler of Kandahar, Mir Chakar gave up Sibi his capital and moved to Multan.
As earlier mentioned, Mir Chakar Rind ruled for about three decades from Sibi, which became the center of Baloch authority. During his reign, and under his leadership, new standards were set in the arts. Literature, bravery and chivalry even today almost every Baloch tribe aspires to treat in the footprint of Mir Chakar who do not doubt was a brave warrior and at the same time a men filled with compassion generosity, and hospitality. Describing the medieval importance of Sibi, the capital city of the Rind-Lashari confederation, Sardar Khan Khan wrote.
The town of SIbi took its place as the most cultured and commercial town in the whole of Balochistan under the Baloch Ameerate. It remained as the most celebrated capital of Charkar who maintained his imperial court with barbaric and luxuries pageantry patent to medieval glamour. The capital of Rinds acted as the eye of Balochistan and mother of gay societies and songster. The past traditions speak of Sibi as the most high and paly city of Balochistan, housing population of one hundred thousand souls… in Sibi, flock poets and beaux espirts of Makkuran Sind and songstresses of Persian Balochistan.
The Baloch nationalist describe the region of Mir Chakar Rind as the golden age of the Baloch and regard his as the “Great Baloch”. Sardar Khan asserts, the age of Rind supremacy in all supremacy in all spheres of Baloch life, in its way and color was just as important in its crude form in Baloch history as the Age of Percales in ancient Greece, the Renaissance at the close of the Middle Ages, and the Industrial Revolution in modern time”. Having molded their destiny by uniting them under one banner, Mir Chakar Rind gave the scattered Baloch tribes a common identity. Thus, in nationalist account he is considered “like a pillar of strength for the Baloch race and author of Baloch code of honor and Balochi traditions
It is believed that Mir Chakar had an army of 40,000 men, while Babur conquered India with an army of only 12,000 soldiers. Describing his army, Marri wrote, “forty thousand warriors collect on Mir’s call, all descendants of one ancestor. All bedecked with coast of mail and Iron armours covering their head, chest and fore-arms; all are armed with bows and arrows, with silken scarves, with overcoats, and red boats on their feet with golden rings on their fingers”. The Baloch under Mir Chakar were well organized and well discipline. It is speculated that Mir Chakar had some 400,000 to 500,000 followers on his march. The misfortunate of Mir Chakar according to Inayatullah Baloch was that he did not have the political imagination or skill to convert his tribal confederacy into a more unified political identity.
The Baloch nationalist regard Mir Chakar as the symbol of their unity and strength. “We are the sons of Chakar”, is the most famous song in the Baloch nationalist circles. He mastered the martial virtues of the Baloch and established the largest ever, even though short-lived Baloch confederacy Marri writers of him:
To this day Mir Chakar is regarded as one of the greatest heroes of the Baloches. He is the center of greatest heroes of the Baloches. He is the center of Baloch love-lore and war-ballads. A natural leader of men, it was him who nearly for two decades remained the sole leader of all the Baloches. He captured by strength of arm the Kalat highlands as well as lower Balochistan, and settled the Baloches there. Again, thanks to him and his arms, the Baloches later on ruled not only in Balochistan but also in Punjab and Sindh as well. Had it not been for Mir Chakar, there would have been not Kalat state, nor Talpur rulers of Sind; nor could the Punjab Baloches have found it easy to secure Jagirs and settle down there.
Although the Baloch whop settled in Punjab and Sindh are not closely linked to the mainstream of Baloch life today, but the principal link with their past for most of them is the vast body of popular ballads dating back to the day of Mir Chakar. Handed down from generation to generation, and first recorded by British scholars, sund by professional wandering minstrels, central to a considerable extent on Rind-Lashari conflict. In these ballads, Mir Chakar occupies a dominant position.
In Balochi poetry, be it war ballads or love lyrics, Mir Chakar is mentioned extensively. As indicated above, it was he who led the Baloch tribes into the highlands of Kalat and lowlands of Kacchi. Again it was due to him that the Baloch came to rule over parts of Sindh and in Multan, even of for only short periods. He died in ca.1550 A.D. , and lies buried in a mausoleum in the Shaiwal district of Punjab.
The inter-tribal rivalry dealt a fatal blow to the Baloch confederacy. It destroyed Baloch central organization, weakened their strength and forced them to leave Balochistan and migrate eastwards, to Sindh and Punjab. In Sardar Khan Baloch’s opinion, “The fratricidal plunged the whole race into a bath of blood and made the Baloch structure to collapse and sapped to its foundation”. The main reasons, according to Inyatullah Baloch, were the nomadic character of the Baloch society and the lack of statesmanship of Mir Chakar’s failure to stop Lashari challenges had so polarized the community and the civil war so drained the tribes that the Baloch failed to maintain their confederacy. The division of the newly occupied land and the political power, according to Professor Abdullah Jan Jamaldini of Balochistan University factions, the Rinds and the Lasharis.
In this respect, however, the interference of the two powerful neighbors of Balochistan, the Arghuns of Kandahar and the Sammas of Sindh played an important role. Their constant involvement protracted the war. As viewed by Dr Shah Mohammad Marri, “The rich lands of Sibi not only coveted the Baloch feudals, but also whet the Rind chief, Mir Chakar Rind, while the Sammas gave their assistance to the opponent camp, headed by Mir Gwahram Lashari. As a result of this lasting war the Baloch power in Balochistan weakened and finally disintegrated.
Thus, wakened by years, long war with the Lasharis, Mir Chakar Rind after being badly mauled by the Arguns in a battle near Sibi, moved with his remaining army to Multan. At the end of the Charkarian ere the whole Baloch society was disrupted by inter-tribal wars, which led to enormous migration toward Sindh and Punjab. Mir Chakar, as mentioned above, migrated with about four to five hundred thousand persons.
The end of the Rind-Lashari confederacy in about 1512 A.D. ended an era in Baloch history. Subsequently, the Baloch country was dived into several independent kingdom, including the Dodai Kingdom of Derajat, the Makkoran Kingdom of Malik and Boleidai, and the Khanate of Kalat. Civil strife continued for about a century until Mir Ahmed Khan of the Ahmadzai tribe established the Khanate of Balochistan or the second important Baloch confederacy in 1666 AD. Its unification, however was completed by the Khans of Kalat, Abdullah Khan (1714-1734), and Nasir Khan the Great (1749-1795), which will e discussed in the following section.
The Khanate of Balochistan
The Khanate of Balochistan grew, and became established, from the middle of the seventeenth century onwards, Centering in the Kalat highlands, southwest of Mir Chakar’s former capital, the Khanate was the Baloch State to embrace all the Baloch regions such as Makkoran, Western Balochistan, Derajat, Sistan, and Lasbela and consolidate them into a body under the authority of a central government. The Khanate not only gave the Baloch a concept of unity and patriotism but also provided an unwritten constitution. The Khanate of Balochistan later became known, as the Khanate of Kalat or state because of its capital city, Kalat.
When in 1666, Mir Ahmad 1 was elected by the Jirga (council) of the elder or tribal assembly), as the Kahn of Kalat, the Khanate was a loose confederacy of Baloch tribes living around Kalat. As a political synthesis, its internal cohesion was still very weak, and indeed such weakness is typical of all tribal confederations; there were numerous local power centers, but no sovereign figure of reference. The Khanate of Kalat came into being by exploiting this very vacuum, which followed after the disintegration of the Rind- Lashari confederacy in Balochistan in the early fifteen century.
Mir Ahmed I Expanded the border of the Khanate. From then on, the history of the Khanate assumed a clear, define shape; and is chronology could be determined. Formation of the Khanate of Kalat, according to historian Inyatullah Baloch, was another important and significant chapter of Baloch history. The Rind-Lashari confederacy did not survive because of its nomadic character but it did not expand because independence on Mughal India. Makkoran maintained its independence but failed to expend due to the Persian invasion and internal tribal conflicts with its Baloch neighbor, Kalat.
As indicated above, since the fall of the Rind-Lashari confederacy in 16th century, various empires and political syntheses were in fact contending for the Baloch country; the Shiite Safavids to the west and the Mughal to the east, both intent upon consolidating their frontiers, so as to fend off forays and incursions by nomadic tribes from Afghanistan and Central Asia. Thus, the rising Baloch confederacy was entangled in continual with the Mughal and Persian empires.
To encounter the growing pressure of the Shiite Safavids the founder of the Ahmadzai dynasty Mir Ahmad I pursued a policy of friendship with the powerful emperor of India, Aurangzeb. However, in the region of Mir Samandar, the Iranian army under General Tahmasp invaded Balochistan aiming to occupy western Balochistan but it was defeated and Tahmasp ws killed. The Mughal emperor not only admired this deed but also agreed to pay him Rs. 200,000 annually as military aid to meet the challenges of Iranian aggression.
The Khanate of Kalat of consolidated most of the Baloch country into a feudal state during the 18th century. During the early 18th century, Abdullah Khan, the fourth Khan (1714-1734) expanded his realm “from Kandahar in what is now southeastern Afghanistan, across the Makran area all the way to Bandar Abbas in what is now a southern Iranian port and extended his dominion to embrace Dera Ghazi Khan District on the edge of Punjab”. By the middle of the eighteenth century, Nasir Khan I (the Sixth Khan), the most popular, powerful and dynamic ruler of the Khanate (1749-1795) claimed sovereignty over “all lands where Baloch’s lived”.
He brought Karachi and most of western (Iranian) Balochistan under his administration.
Speaking of Nasir Khan, Masson, narrator of various journeys in Balochistan, said, “At an early period he consolidated his authority over an immense kingdom, the secret of his success being that he had influence enough to ensure the obedience of his feudal chiefs, and discretion enough to refrain from interfering in their internal affairs”. With the confederate force bound to him by this feudal tie, Nasir Khan consolidated his dominions.
The Marris and the Bugtis, Las Bela, Makkoran, Kharan, and Quetta formed his kingdom. Moreover, according to Harrison, at the height of his power, Nasir Khan renewed Kalat’s claims of severity over the Iranian Baloch areas and sent occasional expeditionary forces to his western borderlands.
Nasir Khan I reigned from the seaboard stretching from Karachi for about 400 miles west to the present Iranian frontier, the cairn of the Maliks west to the present Iranian “Minab River” and up to Quetta and east from Quetta to the Derajat border- a country considerably greater than Great Britain and Ireland put together. Administratively, Nasir Khan came closer to establishing a centralized bureaucratic apparatus covering all of Balochistan then any other Baloch ruler before or since. Organizing the civil and military affairs of the Baloch Khanate on semi-modern lines, Nasir Khan established a “proto-parliament based on a workable constitution and congenial Baloch tradition”. He had Wazir (prime Minister), who supervised all internal administration, and foreign affairs matter, and a Mustoufi, whose responsibility was to collect revenue from crown currency. Like Mir Jalal Khan and Mir Chakar Rind, Nasir Khan continues to be among the most popular heroes in the Baloch folklore and political literature. (To be continued)
The combined average temperature over land and ocean surfaces was a “record high for the month at 61.20 Fahrenheit (16.22 Celsius),” said the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
That meant June was a total of 1.30°F (0.72°C) warmer than the 20th century average for the month, surpassing the last record high temperature for June set in 2010, said NOAA.
Taken alone, the ocean´s global surface temperature in June was the highest for any month on record, breaking the past record set in 1998, NOAA added.
“Most of the world experienced warmer-than-average monthly temperatures, with record warmth across part of southeastern Greenland, parts of northern South America, areas in eastern and central Africa, and sections of southern and southeastern Asia,” NOAA said in a statement.
“Similar to May, scattered sections across every major ocean basin were also record warm.”
Sea ice in the Arctic declined faster than normal for June, and was nearly five percent below the 1981-2010 average, NOAA said.
The findings are part of an ongoing trend of rising global temperatures.
June has been warmer than the 20th century average for 38 years in a row, the agency said.
Its report last month also found that May was a record-setter, also topping the previous high set in 2010.The last time June broke records for being cooler than normal was in 1976.